It describes the main sites of Harappan Civilization as well as the material remains which characterised these sites. They painted such animal motifs such as humped bulls on thin pottery. C. Harappa. late-Harappan stage, the decline of the Indus culture started. Harappan and Late Harappan site. There were popular trade networks which linked this culture to the regional culture. • The discovery of circular structures at the entrance of the valley, a unique feature of early Harappan days, has also been reported. Dockyard, Terracotta figurine of a horse, fire altars, double burial (burying a male and a female in a single grave), and painted jar were found here. 6. Features of Indus Valley Civilization Urbanization & Town Planning. 2. Name. NCERT texts are a must read for every UPSC aspirant and are available for free download from ncert.nic.in website. The Lothal site was excavated by S R Rao in 1957. – focus on the religious, social, and cultural aspects. Read more about Indus Valley Civilization, town planning in IVC and other IVC facts for IAS Exam. • The structures are outlined by two or three courses of mud brick with post-holes at intervals. Q4. 2. Some traits of post-urban Harappan culture are to be found in Pakistan, and in central and western India, in Punjab, Rajasthan, … Pottery, copper and bronze fragments were also recovered. The Early Harappan Phase is related to the Hakra Phase, identified in the Ghaggar-Hakra River Valley. At which Harappan site traces of a horse have been found? (xii) Early Harappan site (xiii) An ancient temple (xiv) Political and Cultural centre (xv) An ancient sea port (xvi) Buddhist centre (xvii) Inscriptional site (xviii) An ancient capital (xix) A Jaina centre (xx) An ancient capital. Northern most Harappan site. Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a bronze-age civilization. Period 2: Kot Diji Phase (Early Harappan, incipient urbanization, ca 25 hectares), 2800–2600 BCE; Period 1: pre-Harappan Ravi aspect of the Hakra phase, 3800–2800 BCE; The earliest Indus phase occupation at Harappa is called the Ravi aspect, when people first lived at least as early as 3800 BCE. 3. Questions on Ancient History in 2020 Prelims – With reference to the period of the Gupta dynasty in ancient India, the towns Ghantasala, Kadura, and Chaul were well known as Phases of Indus Valley Civilization. It was a coastal town. Ans D. Iron. GENERAL STUDIES FOR ALL UPSC/PSC EXAMS Headline Animator ↑ Grab this Headline Animator All Categories Books Mobiles & Accessories Computers Cameras Games & Consoles Music, Movies & Posters Home Audio & MP3 Players Belts, Bags & Luggage Home & Kitchen TVs & Video Players Pens & Stationery These are texts which help to build the fundamentals. In May 2012, the Global Heritage Fund, declared Rakhigarhi one of the 10 most endangered heritage sites in Asia. The Late Harappan Phase from 1900 to 1300 BCE. Ans B. Surkotda. They had constructed some kind of granary too. Download Indus Valley Civilization notes PDF. Previously, Archiologists believed that Early Harappan civilization phase begin from 3500 BCE; But new sites from Haryana are as old as 5000 BECAUSE (Farmana, Girawad and Mitathal) Now Expert think that Harppan civilization originated from Ghagagar basin in Haryana and then spread towards Indus Valley civilization in Western India and Pakistan. It is a 5,000-year-old site that showcases continuity from the Harappan age to the present times. The transition from Early harappan to Mature harappan is best seen at Amri where at the beginning of the 3rd Millenium BC a distinctive culture complex to the south east of baluchistan appeared. The important findings at the site include pottery, ornaments, copper axes, chert blades, terracotta blades, one inscribed steatite seal with typical Indus pictographs, several burials interred in oval pits and a rectangular mud brick chamber. Located in Khadir Beyt, Rann of Kutch, Gujarat. ; It is called Harappan because this civilization was discovered first in 1921 at the modern site of Harappa situated in the province of West Punjab in Pakistan. Amri is the type-site of this early cultural assemblage. The material … 9. Ropar is a Harappan site from where remains of pre-Harappan and Harappan cultures have been found. Check the important questions of UPSC IAS Prelims 2021 from the Ancient & Medieval History section. Artifacts excavated from these sites that denote their art, culture, and script used during this period. Also Read: History Books for UPSC in Hindi: Get Full Information on Best Books for UPSC in Hindi. Several periodisations are employed for the periodisation of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Banawali Banawali was excavated by Daya Ram Sahni in 1921-1923. The early Harappan phase from 3300 BC to 2600 BC. In this phase, houses were of mud-brick. • Among the explored Harappan sites of the Saraswati—Drishadvati valley, Rakhigarhi seems to be the largest. Note : Traces of camel found in Kalibangal. Let us learn about this very important part of our history Bronze. The biggest site in India, until the discovery of Rakhigarhi. Polychrome pottery have also been found, though very rare. Some of the designs such as fish scales, pipal leaves, and intersecting circles have their roots in the early Harappan phase. Indus Valley Sites Harappa. Post-Urban Phase. Discovered by J.P Joshi/Rabindra Singh (1990) 3 parts + large open area for ceremonies; Large letters of the Harappan script (signboards). Ropar is a Harappan site from where remains of pre-Harappan and Harappan cultures have been found, Buildings at Ropar were made mainly of stone and soil. Explanation: After analysing the cultures of early archaeological sites with the Harappan site, it appears that there was a break between the Early Harappan and Harappan Civilisation which is evident from the findings of large-scale burning sites and the abandonment of certain settlements. In this article, we will be dealing with the important points filtered out from NCERT school text for Standard 6 History. While the Indus Valley Civilisation was divided into Early, Mature and Late Harappan by archaeologists like Mortimer Wheeler, newer periodisations include the Neolithic early farming settlements, and use a Stage-Phase model, often combining terminology from various systems. It is associated with Hakra Phase, which is founded in the Ghaggar-Hakra River Valley, named after a site Sindh in Pakistan near Mohenjodaro. The early Harappan phase was located near Ravi River and lasted between C 3300 BCE until 2800 BCE. The Early Harappan Phase from 3300 to 2600 BCE. Different Harappan sites and their significance. 2. Of them, 406 are located in Pakistan and 616 in India. In UPSC IAS Prelims Exam, History is one of the crucial subjects and it consists of three sections of the History i.e. Geographical Feature of Harappan Sites :- After reading this Unit you should be able to : understand that there was continuity of population and material traditions between the Early Harappan and Harappan Civilization. It was the only Harappan city without a citadel. Artefacts of Kushana period:- Pottery, terracotta figurines, bone arrow heads, iron daggers… Mature Harappan settlements number 1022. BRW, red ware and grey ware. Harappan Civilization. Period III belongs to the Harappan, giving evidence of early, transitional, and late sub-phases, into a final 'Jhukar' sub-phase. It was believed to be a hub of art and culture and architecture. sites of Amri and Kot Diji remain the evidence for early-Harappan stage; mature-Harappan stage, great cities emerged excavations at Kalibangan with its elaborate town planning and urban features prove this phase of evolution. These factories produced seals, toys and bone implements. Some people call Indus Valley people as Proto-Dravidians, who might have been pushed to south in mature Harappan phase when Aryans, with their advanced military skills commenced their migration around 2000BC. The Harappan civilization represents the culmination of a long period of evolution of agricultural and semi-nomadic communities. Copper. It arose in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. The discoveries made at these architectural sights give us great insight into the lives & lifestyles of our ancestors. Ancient, Medieval and Modern. What are the distinctive features of this genre? The present year is 2007 according to this dating system. The excavation team was led by Daya Ram Sahni. Harappan Sites (i) Manda/ Akhnoor In Akhnoor district, J&K on the bank of Chenab. D. Iron. B. Surkotda. THE INDUS or the Harappan culture is older than the chalcolithic cultures which have been treated earlier, but it is far more developed than these cultures. After reading this Unit you should be able to : understand that there was continuity of population and material traditions between the Early Harappan and Harappan Civilization. 7. The Indus Valley Civilisation is named after the Indus river system in whose alluvial plains the early sites of the civilisation were identified and excavated. —->Early Harappan 3000–2600 BCE —->Mature Harappan 2600–1900 BCE —->Late Harappan 1900–1700 BCE The urban phase was prevalent in the mature Harappan period and began to decline afterwards. The village also has havelis that are a couple of hundred years old. 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