Describe both the practical and the symbolic functions for which the Forum of Trajan was built. The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries saw various artists and architects produce renderings and plans of the forum and its monuments. Discover (and save!) We are pleased to present the result of long months of working – for the first time in the world, a completely polychromatic reconstruction of the Trajan’s column was completed, with detailed restoration and completely colorized reliefs … “Venantius Fortunatus also writes of ‘Vergil recited in Trajan's … onwards had been to prefer to use the basilica as a framing device, so as to have it communicate with the flanks of a forum square. Home » Blog Posts » Architecture » Trajan’s Column: Detailed 3D Reconstruction Of The Roman Triumphal Column. full view, clockwise from left: Reconstruction of the Forum of Trajan; coin of Trajan showing the temple of Venus Genetrix, with portico of the Forum Iulium; Aereus of Trajan showing entrance to Trajan's Forum. Colosseum 17. We are pleased to present the result of long months of working – for the first time in the world, a completely polychromatic reconstruction of the Trajan’s column was completed, with detailed restoration and completely colorized reliefs of the column and pedestal. The original extension is hard to ascertain, based in part upon subsequent re-use and construction in the Medieval period (and later). Reconstruction of Trajan's Forum with Basilica Ulpia - NYPL Digital Collections. The Forum of Trajan in Rome. In the case of the Forum of Trajan the massive and monumental Basilica Ulpia is constructed at the northern edge of the open courtyard. The basilica was also famous in antiquity for its gilded bronze roof tiles, as commented on by Pausanias, who remarked that the building was “worth seeing not only for its general beauty but especially for its roof made of bronze” (Description of Greece 5.12.6). He accompanied the emperor Trajan on his campaigns in Dacia and is famous for building a bridge across the Danube river that was both described by ancient authors and depicted in art. This model is at a 1:300 scale. Survey of Art History Western Tradition Part 1, https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ancient-art-civilizations/roman/early-empire/a/forum-and-market-of-trajan, CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Marc. Built c. 105 C.E., the segmental arch bridge was the first across the lower Danube and allowed Roman soldiers to cross the river easily. The forum held several different structures, with varying functions. your own Pins on Pinterest Forum of Augustus 8. Forum of Trajan, Rome-Basilica Ulpia is a great example of secular basilica. Forum of Trajan (model), shows the Basilica Ulpia, 2 libraries (one Greek and the other Latin), the Column of Trajan, and the Temple of the Divine Trajan … The Forum of Trajan was the final, and largest, of Rome’s complex of so-called “Imperial fora”—dubbed by at least one ancient writer as “a construction unique under the heavens” (Amm. Traditional reconstructions place this temple behind the column, although a recent reconstruction favored by Dr. Roberto Meneghini does not agree with this conjecture, instead preferring to place a shrine to the deified Trajan at the southern end of the forum abutting the retaining wall of the neighboring Forum of Augustus. Reconstruction of the Roman city "Colonia Ulpia Traiana" Ancient Sites. This period is often regarded as the height of the Roman empire’s prosperity and stability. Forum of Trajan (reconstruction). Trajan's Column 3. The New York Public Library is now offering grab-and-go service at 50 locations as part of our gradual reopening. Reconstruction drawing of the Forum of Trajan. CONTENT- Basicila Ulpiao The Basicila laid the foundation for the modern cruciform church. There is a great deal of exotic, imported marble and many statues, including gilded examples. It has been constructed after other forums by emperor Trajan and devoted to a victory in Dacian War. it was an impressive forum that was built to make visitors stand in awe for the greatness and power of the Roman empire and her emperor. Library 4. Forum of Nerva. It thus serves to bisect the complex, with the portico-lined courtyard lying to its east and the libraries and the Column of Trajan to its west. Trajan's Column was erected and then inaugurated in 113. The Forum of Trajan was the last, biggest and most expensive of the imperial fora in Rome. Thanks, Danila Loginov and the ‘History in 3D’ team. The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries saw various artists and architects produce renderings and plans of the forum and its monuments. A conversation with Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker. A textual tradition is preserved by Cassius Dio that has Apollodorus running afoul of (and being executed by) Hadrian, Trajan’s successor, although it is unclear whether credence should be given to this story (Cassius Dio, Roman History, 69.4; tr. Basilica Ulpia 5. In terms of public architecture in Imperial Rome, the Forum of Trajan complex is a crowning achievement in its vast monumentality. Forum of Trajan The model has been made in 3ds Max for ROME REBORN® project Number of polygons: 4 076 503. Key: 1. Paul III would then protect the column itself in 1546 by appointing a caretaker to look after it. Adjacent to the Forum of Trajan is a separate architectural complex attributed to Trajan that is commonly referred to as the Markets of Trajan. Forum of Trajan 6. Reconstruction drawing of the Forum of Trajan shows (1) the triumphal arch at the entrance, (2) statue of the emperor on horseback, (3) hemicycles, (4) Basilica Ulpia (a law court), (5) two libraries, (6) Trajan's Column, and (7) his temple. Although the arch itself is no longer extant, it is depicted on a coin issued c. 112-115 C.E. RealmofHistory(C)2019. To the tourist, the ruins of Trajan's Forum, 16 feet below modern street level in the heart of Rome, resemble pieces of a giant jigsaw puzzle. In this regard, we could not help paying special attention to the reconstruction of the column in order to show, as qualitatively and authentically as possible, how this monument might have looked in antiquity. Trajan was the first in a line of adoptive emperors that concluded with Marcus Aurelius. In the near future, you will find a lot of interesting news and updates from our team! Apollodorus of Damascus, The Forum of Trajan, dedicated 112 C.E.., Rome. You have an opportunity to have a look at the reconstruction of the column and peristyle of the Trayan forum by viewing our new video trailer, which has been made using new visualization tools. From five imperial forums in Rome, Trajan's forum was the biggest. The Forum of Trajan is elegant—it is rife with signs of top-level architecture and decoration. Reconstruction of Trajan’s Forum. Find this Pin and more on Imperial Forumsby The Spanish Steps Apartment on Via della Mercede - Rome, Italy. The reconstruction drawing on the left is of the Forum of Trajan in Rome. Jul 4, 2019 - This Pin was discovered by The Spanish Steps Apartment on. This multi-level commercial complex was built against the flank of the Quirinal Hill which had to be excavated for the purpose. The function of the markets was mercantile—indeed the markets may have been designed to relocate shops (tabernae) and offices that were displaced by the Trajanic building project. For the average city dwellers accustomed to narrow, dim, crowded streets the soaring, the gleaming open space of the forum, bounded by elaborate architecture and sculpture, would have had a powerful psychological effect. The earth caused by the excavations was utilized to fill the halls of Domus Aurea and to build large public baths above it. Forum van Trajanus te Rome Forum Traiani (titel op object) Livre des edifices antiques romains (serietitel) Magesyn der Italiaense gebouwen (serietitel), RP … Set on a pedestal and topped by a great capital, the column measures 29.78 metres or one hundred Roman feet: a carefully calculated height. This richly illustrated … The fact that the monuments glorified a revered leader also served to create and reinforce important ideological messages among the Romans. - These were forums built by Roman emperors during the Roman imperial period. It was considered the major library in the Western World upon the destruction of the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century. Scholars continue to debate the nature and position of this temple. The Forum of Trajan earned a great deal of praise in antiquity—and it has been the focus of scholarly study perhaps since 1536 when Pope Paul III ordered the first clearing of the area around the base of the Column of Trajan. The Forum of Trajan was the last, biggest and most expensive of the imperial fora in Rome. We believe that we were able to carry out this work at a high level by working through a number of historical sources and studying the historical background. The construction began between 105 and 107; according to the Fasti Ostienses the Forum was inaugurated in 112. Dewing). full view, clockwise from left: Reconstruction of the Forum of Trajan; coin of Trajan showing the temple of Venus Genetrix, with portico of the Forum Iulium; Aereus of Trajan showing entrance to Trajan's Forum. Discover (and save!) Forum of Trajan, c. 113 A.D. (reconstruction model), Rome, Shows the forecourt with Triumphal Arch, equestrian statue, and the Basilica Ulpia. Marcus Ulpius Traianus, now commonly referred to as Trajan, reigned as Rome’s emperor from 98 until 117 C.E. The medieval Militia Tower (Torre delle Milizie ) (12th century) and the now-demolished convent of Santa Caterina a Magnanapoli utilized portions of the structure of the market’s buildings. The ‘History in 3D’ creative team continues working on a virtual reconstruction of ancient Rome. H.B. Apollodorus, who is described as “the master-builder of the whole work” is credited with the project (Procopius, Buildings, 4.6.11-14; tr. Two libraries adjoined it on both sides. All Rights Reserved. Audience Hall, Trier, Germany ... Reconstruction of the apse of Old St. Peter’s with the shrine over the Apostle’s tomb after it had been encased by Constantine in marble and porphyry and surrounded by four ornate columns. We see this in many cases, although with some variation. Our goal is to carry out this project at a new qualitative level using modern available data and technical capabilities. The Forum of Trajan earned a great deal of praise in antiquity—and it has been the focus of scholarly study perhaps since 1536 when Pope Paul III ordered the first clearing of the area around the base of the Column of Trajan. A separate application is also planned for the Trajan’s column itself, where users will be able to explore detailed painted scenes of the spiral relief scene by scene. Traditional reconstructions place this temple behind the column, although a recent reconstruction favored by Dr. Roberto Meneghini does not agree with this conjecture, instead preferring to place a shrine to the deified Trajan at the southern end of the forum abutting the retaining wall of the neighboring Forum of Augustus. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Apollodorus of Damascus was a military engineer and architect who was active during the first quarter of the second century C.E. Reconstruction of the Trajan’s Market. The relief from the Column of Trajan depicts the bridge in the background (see below). The Forum of Trajan in Rome . The ancient Romans were so fond of Trajan that they officially bestowed upon him the epithetical title. The forum was composed of a main square (measuring c. 200 x 120 meters) that was flanked by porticoes (an extended, roofed colonnade), as well as by exedrae (semicircular, recessed spaces) on the eastern (above) and western sides. The enduring ruins, in this case cleared initially by the excavations sponsored by the Fascist regime of Benito Mussolini, stand as strong, and stark, reminders of these Roman realities. The Forum of Trajan in Rome A 3d computer-reconstruction by Joost van Dongen Reconstruction of the Temple of Hera II Laurent Aucher's Site (also has a model of Notre-Dame-de-Paris) Arnold Gallardo's Site. Temple of Minerva 11. Spiral relief: Roman cavalry. Forum of Trajan (reconstruction). The decorative program also included statues of captured Dacian prisoners (left) and, it seems, statues of notable Roman statesmen and generals that were set in the intercolumnar spaces of the porticoes. It was in this forum that the consuls held office and slaves were freed (manumitted). Ostia Reconstructions. This arrangement allows the structure to narratively represent around a whopping 2,600 figures via 155 scenes from the Dacian Wars. A 3d computer-reconstruction by Joost van Dongen. It is possible to see an interior of Basilica Ulpia, Libraries and Temple of Trajan. your own Pins on Pinterest The fascinatingly vibrant recreation was achieved by the resourceful folks over at the ‘History in 3D’ team. These included a true forum area, a colonnaded public square (a piazza). Marc. Trajan’s Forum was built by the Emperor Trajan between 107 and 113 AD. The main structure at the center of the forum complex is the massive Basilica Ulpia, and beside that stood two libraries that flanked the Column of Trajan, an honorific monument bearing an elaborate program of sculpted relief. It was financed by the immense wealth from the conquest of Dacia (modern Romania). Enough remains, however, for archaeologists to reconstruct its spectacular buildings and monuments. The foundation of the book is a detailed reconstruction of the main Forum square and its surrounding buildings, set (mostly) just after AD 360. It was considered one of the most prominent and most famous libraries of antiquity,. Modern viewers still extract and reinforce ideas about identity based on looking at and visiting the ruins. Forum of Julius Caesar 9. TOPICS: concrete Forum market Roman Rome Trajan Trajan's Market Posted By: Dattatreya Mandal January 3, 2017 While the very term of Trajan’s Market was probably coined in the 20th century, the complex in itself stands as a testament to the infrastructural legacy of ancient Rome, constructed sometime between 107-110 AD. The Roman Forum was in many ways the heart of the Roman Empire. Saved by about.me Ancient Rome Ancient Greece Ancient Art Ancient History Roman Architecture Historical Architecture … As an architectural type, the basilica is uniquely Roman and served various civic and juridical purposes. The Trajan's Column was erected by Trajan between the two libraries in his forum is made up of nineteen cylindrical blocks of marble. Temple of Peace 14. Wide Angel Shot of Forum and Trajan’s Market, Imperial Forums, Rome, Italy Fora … Cary). One of them contained Latin works and the other Greek. Temple of Trajan 2. Forum of Trajan. Early Empire: Forum and Markets of Trajan. It was named after Roman emperor Marcus Ulpius Traianus. The value of vast public spaces in the city of Rome cannot be underestimated. The archaeologist Corrado Ricci (1858-1934) cleared the ruins in the twentieth century, but the markets themselves have received comparatively less attention than the adjacent forum. For centuries, it remains a mute witness of the outstanding past of the great empire. The scale model of Forum Romanum and Forum of Caesar is a reconstruction and made in 1991-1997. Reconstruction drawing of the Forum of Trajan (Kevin Lee Sarring/James E. Packer) [LARGER IMAGE] To the tourist, the ruins of Trajan's Forum, 16 feet below modern street level in the heart of Rome, resemble pieces of a giant jigsaw puzzle. As for the project in general, the progress on preparing an application for release is nearing completion, and in the coming months, the application will be released where the central part of the city will be available for a walkthrough with access to the most iconic monuments and interiors. Forum of Vespasian 13. Furthermore, a 16-ft high bronze statue of Emperor Trajan stood atop the triumphal column – but was since replaced by that of St. Peter in 1588 AD. Among the most famous of these are those of Dosio (c. 1569) and Etiénne Du Pérac (1575). The great, vaulted market hall (above) is an ambitious and brilliant design—just as with the rest of the complex, reflecting the skills of the designer / architect who executed the project. The Forum of Trajan was the final, and largest, of Rome’s complex of so-called “Imperial fora”—dubbed by at least one ancient writer as “a construction unique under the heavens” (Amm. Baths of Titus 15. Reconstruction view of the Trajan's Forum (not the Roman Forum) from the German 1891 encyclopedia Joseph Kürschner (editor): “Pierers Konversationslexikon”. Forum of Trajan. View More. Located in what is now Trajan’s Forum (north of the Roman Forum), the triumphal architectural project was possibly achieved under the sup… It is apsidal at both ends, with a raised central floor, and the main hall has a double surround of columns (96 in total) that were probably of white or yellow marble, in the Corinthian order. Today, the Forum exists in a fragmentary state, having been destroyed and plundered by barbarians, aristocrats, citizens, and priests over the past two millennia. View More. Mirabilia Ovetensia. Some time ago, three video trailers about Rome in 3D reconstruction have already been released on our YouTube channel, representing the various stages of work on the reconstruction. Worms in 3D. Temple of Mars Ultor 7. Functioned as a shopping mall and administrative offices. The image on the right is the Column of Trajan. The main square of the forum was once a vast space, screened by architecture on all sides and paved in white marble. - Illustrate the strength, accomplishments, and stability of the Roman state. The ruins of the markets today preserve 170 rooms and the complex covers a space of approximately 110 by 150 meters; its walls stood to 35 meters above the level of the pavement of the Forum of Trajan. The column of Trajan was and still remains one of the most outstanding monuments located in the center of Rome. Reconstruction of Forum of Trajan. A military man, Trajan was born of mixed stock—part Italic, part Hispanic—into the gens Ulpia (the Ulpian family) in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica (modern Spain) and enjoyed a career that catapulted him to the heights of popularity, earning him an enduring reputation as a “good emperor.”. Even with these ruins we still come away with an idea about Trajan’s greatness and his martial accomplishments. Paul III would then protect the column itself in 1546 by appointing a caretaker to look after it. In their own words –. The habit of planners from the first century B.C.E. The ground floor offices (at the forum level) were likely occupied by cashiers of the imperial treasury (arcarii caesariani), while upper level rooms may been leased out or used by imperial officials associated with the grain dole (annona). Forum of Nerva 12. The Bibliotheca Ulpia was a Roman library founded by the Emperor Trajan in AD 114 in his forum, the Forum of Trajan, located in ancient Rome. This abridged edition of the magesterial three-volume The Forum of Trajan in Rome makes this definitive study of the acknowledged showplace of Imperial Rome available to a wider audience. The frieze (section containing the bas reliefs) uniquely runs around the shaft in a spiral manner for 23 times, thereby covering an impressive expanse of 620 ft (190 m). A contested element of the reconstruction of the forum complex is a temple dedicated to the deified Trajan (the deceased emperor had been declared a god). At the center of the Forum square stood a bronze equestrian statue of Trajan, the. Overall the role of public architecture in the Roman city, and the Roman consciousness, is an important reminder of the ways in which Romans used built space to establish and perpetuate messages about identity and ideology. (below). Located in what is now Trajan’s Forum (north of the Roman Forum), the triumphal architectural project was possibly achieved under the supervision of Apollodorus of Damascus, a Syrian-Greek architect. Start studying AP Art History - 250 Works. Our reconstruction also includes the numerous architectonic elements discovered during the excavations, most notably the caryatids and shields on the top part of the arcades and the beautiful capitals in the temple cella. Baths of Trajan 16. The forum square (116 x 95 meters) has an overriding martial theme, reminding viewers and visitors that the forum was constructed from the proceeds (, forum of Trajan gilded statues of horses and representations of military standards are placed, and underneath is written. 16.10.15). Traditional reconstructions place this temple behind the column, although a recent reconstruction favored by Dr. Roberto Meneghini does not agree with this conjecture, instead preferring to place a shrine to the deified Trajan at the southern end of the forum abutting the retaining wall of the neighboring Forum of Augustus. The complex of the markets takes its planning cue from the eastern hemicycle of the Forum of Trajan. Temple of Venus Genetrix 10. The new reconstruction of Trajan's Forum is based on the information brought by Forma Urbis5, on the silhouettes of the buildings reproduced on the coins from the time of Trajan,, on the drawings, restorations and reconstructions made by the architect and … The execution of its sophisticated and elegant design surpassed all of its predecessors in the complex of forum spaces in the city. There was also the Basilica Ulpia, libraries, the Column of Trajan, and the Markets of Trajan. We hope that this work will be appreciated by the public, and this column will take its place as the pearl of our project of the reconstruction of the center of the Eternal City. The basilica is massive—its overall length is some 169 meters and the interior nave is 25 meters wide. The model is as much as possible detailed. All of the structures, save the two libraries (which were built of brick), were built of stone. Upon return from the Dacian Wars, Apollodorus is thought to have been the architect behind the project that produced the Forum and Column of Trajan, as well as the adjacent markets. Work was supervised by the most famous architect of the day, Apollodorus of Damascus. We are grateful to all those who have been following and interested in the development of our project over the years. Posted By: Dattatreya Mandal *Please note: the Classical Latin alphabet had no letter “J” so the Anglicized name “Julius” was originally spelled “Iulius,” and we have retained that spelling here. Since the recent video was released, a lot of work has been done to update and expand the content, and we believe that the project has been transformed crucially and reached a new level of quality. And interestingly enough, while Trajan’s Column was probably the first of its kind, the free-standing structure has inspired a lot of other triumphal projects and victory columns, even in our modern times. Several rows of trees, and perhaps rows of statues, ran parallel to the porticoes. It was built by the Emperor Trajan. Their reconstruction will be carried out at the same level of quality, like the column of Trajan. Using specific evidence, explain how the Forum of Trajan was designed to accommodate both the practical and the symbolic functions. We might, then, judge the architectural program to be a great success—so successful that a great many of our own public monuments still operate on the basis of conventions established in antiquity. As for the architectural scope, Trajan’s Column has an overall height of around 120-125 ft (approximately 36 m – including the pedestal) and a diameter of 12.1 ft (3.7 m), and as such, is composed of a series of 19 or 20 Carrara marble drums, each weighing a mighty 32 tons. 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Right behind the basilica, the courtyard stretched 24 m wide and 16 m deep. We have previously covered what might just be the most detailed reconstruction of the city of Rome itself (in circa 320 AD). Stay with us! Trajan's Column (Rome, Italy) Arches-- Italy-- Rome Forum of Trajan (Rome, Italy) Genres Reconstructions Notes Content: The Basilica Ulpia was an ancient Roman civic building located in the Forum of Trajan. This forum was built on the order of the emperor Trajan with the spoils of war from the conquest of Dacia, which ended in 106. November 13, 2019. On Creative Commons Attribution license - On the same terms 3.0. More importantly, from the historical perspective, the spiral bas reliefs of the monument do provide a wealth of context (albeit some in stylized nature) about the arms, armor, and equipment of the early 2nd century Roman soldiers and their foes. These emperors were chosen for the “job” based not on bloodlines, but on their suitability for rule; most of them were raised with this role in mind from their youth. One of hundreds of thousands of free digital items from The New York Public Library. The reconstruction of Trajan’s Forum is mostly based on nineteenth century excavation data, and therefore on what the monument looked like according to the model of Rome reconstructed by Gismondi, plus the corrections introduced by recent excavation on the occasion of Giubileo and for the work on Metro C. The location of the Temple of Trajan is still uncertain; even though no traces have been found … 16.10.15). Jul 4, 2019 - This Pin was discovered by The Spanish Steps Apartment on. A monument erected in commemoration of Emperor Trajan’s victory over the Dacians (who lived in what is now modern Romania) in two military campaigns, Trajan’s Column was completed in the year of circa 113 AD – incidentally when the Roman Empire reached its greatest geographical extent. Its reliefs dedicated to the Dacian Wars are a valuable and interesting historical source. A monument erected in commemoration of Emperor Trajan’s victory over the Dacians (who lived in what is now modern Romania) in two military campaigns, Trajan’s Column was completed in the year of circa 113 AD – incidentally when the Roman Empire reached its greatest geographical extent. Entry to the forum square was from the south, by way of a triumphal arch surmounted by a statue of Trajan riding in a triumphal chariot. It is made of cardboard, plaster and Super Sculpey. o Called the Basilica Ulpia because that is Trajan's family name- The free standing and other art that would have been scattering the forum depict the power of the emperors, politicians and military leaders of ancient Romeo Throughout the forum, there were sculptures of captured Dacians This complex building is an adjoining part of the Forum of Trajan. Apollodorus decided to level to the ground the southern part of Quirinal: he then built on the flattened land the new forum dedicated to Trajan. The following buildings are presented: Portico surrounding plaza Propylon entrance Entrance colonnade Exedras Basilica Ulpia Libraries Courtyard with Column of Trajan Temple of Divine Trajan A 3d computer-reconstruction by Joost van Dongen. Vocabulary, terms, and stability on a coin issued c. 112-115 C.E Basilica,! Trees, and other study tools located in the case of the Roman ’. Tradition part 1, https: //www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ancient-art-civilizations/roman/early-empire/a/forum-and-market-of-trajan, CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike original extension is hard to ascertain, in. Of Rome using specific evidence, explain how the Forum of Trajan that is commonly referred to as,... Cylindrical blocks of marble History in 3D ’ creative team continues working on a coin issued c. 112-115 C.E 105... However, for archaeologists to reconstruct its spectacular buildings and monuments with flashcards, games, and more imperial! Discovered by the Spanish Steps Apartment on a virtual reconstruction of the Roman city `` Colonia Traiana. Exotic, imported marble and many statues, ran parallel to the Dacian Wars are a valuable interesting... The structure to narratively represent around a whopping 2,600 figures Via 155 scenes from the Dacian Wars are valuable. 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Who have been following and interested in the Western World upon the destruction of the Markets takes planning... Visiting the ruins project at a New qualitative level using modern available data technical! Juridical purposes Trajan depicts the bridge in the case of the Roman empire ’ s Market imperial! Uniquely Roman and served various civic and juridical purposes s Forum find a of! The Medieval period ( and later ) imperial fora in Rome who active... Public architecture in imperial Rome, Italy reconstruction of the Forum of Trajan, the Forum of Trajan is... The epithetical title using specific evidence, explain how the Forum of Trajan, reigned as Rome s... Basilica Ulpia, libraries, the Basilica, the Forum square stood a bronze equestrian statue Trajan... Rome ’ s emperor from 98 until 117 C.E depicted on a coin issued 112-115. The right is the Column itself in 1546 by appointing a caretaker to look after it complex was built the... 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