Western culture is a term that refers to the heritage of ethical values, traditions, customs, belief systems, technologies, and artefacts that define the lifestyles and beliefs of people from the Western part of the world. [2] The Near-Eastern civilizations of Ancient Egypt and the Levant, which came under Greek rule, became part of the Hellenistic world. Vitamins, hormonal contraception, hormones, insulin, beta blockers and ACE inhibitors, along with a host of other medically proven drugs, were first utilized to treat disease in the West. The names of western society, western civilization, European civilization and Christian civilization with the same meaning are also used. [113] The percentage of ethnically European Nobel prize winners during the first and second halves of the 20th century were respectively 98 and 94 percent. [117][118][119][120] The Otto and the Diesel internal combustion engines are products whose genesis and early development were in the West. Western culture has developed many themes and traditions, the most significant of which are:[citation needed]. [3][4][5] This period overlapped with and was followed by Rome, which made key contributions in law, government, engineering and political organization. Citizens of Muslim countries may be more vulnerable to their … [citation needed] Concepts of what is the West arose out of legacies of the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. It applies to countries whose history is strongly marked by Western European immigration or settlement, and is not restricted to Western Europe. In the 14th century, starting from Italy and then spreading throughout Europe,[59] there was a massive artistic, architectural, scientific and philosophical revival, as a result of the Christian revival of Greek philosophy, and the long Christian medieval tradition that established the use of reason as one of the most important of human activities. These states also experienced major transformations in the form of the Renaissance and the Industrial Revolution that defined their economic and cultural … The Greek classics along with Arabic science, philosophy and technology were transmitted to Western Europe and translated into Latin, sparking the Renaissance of the 12th century and 13th century. Many musical instruments developed in the West have come to see widespread use all over the world; among them are the violin, piano, pipe organ, saxophone, trombone, clarinet, accordion, and the theremin. English migrants took antecedents of baseball to America during the colonial period. [144][145], In business, economics, and finance, double entry bookkeeping, credit cards, and the charge card were all first used in the West. After the fall of Rome, much of Greco-Roman art, literature, science and even technology were all but lost in the western part of the old empire. The discoveries and inventions by Westerners in electromagnetism include Coulomb's law (1785), the first battery (1800), the unity of electricity and magnetism (1820), Biot–Savart law (1820), Ohm's Law (1827), and Maxwell's equations (1871). The Olympic Games revived many of the sports of Classical Antiquity—such as Greco-Roman wrestling, discus and javelin. [23][24][25], Medieval Christianity is credited with creating the first modern universities. Thus, much of the learning of classical antiquity was slowly reintroduced to European civilization in the centuries following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. New ideas and beliefs spread around Europe and were fostered by an increase in literacy due to a departure from solely religious texts. Restoration of a fresco from an Ancient Roman villa bedroom, circa 50-40 BC, dimensions of the room: 265.4 x 334 x 583.9 cm, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City), Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, circa 1503–1506, perhaps continuing until circa 1517, oil on poplar panel, 77 cm × 53 cm, Louvre, (Paris), Las Meninas, by Diego Velázquez, 1656, oil on canvas, 318 cm × 276 cm, El Prado (Madrid), Dance at Le moulin de la Galette, by Pierre-Auguste Renoir, 1876, oil on canvas, height: 131 cm, Musée d'Orsay (Paris), Photo of the interior of the apartment of Eugène Atget, taken in 1910 in Paris. Until the Age of Enlightenment,[62] Christian culture took over as the predominant force in Western civilization, guiding the course of philosophy, art, and science for many years. [101] In art, the Celtic knot is a very distinctive Western repeated motif. The most important Hellenistic centre of learning was Ptolemaic Egypt, which attracted Greek, Egyptian, Jewish, Persian, Phoenician and even Indian scholars. [90][91][92], Tendencies that have come to define modern Western societies include the concept of political pluralism, individualism, prominent subcultures or countercultures (such as New Age movements) and increasing cultural syncretism resulting from globalization and human migration. Western World mainly refers to Europe and North America. Football(also known as soccer) remains hugely popular in Europe, but has grown from its origins to be known as the world game. The scientific method as "a method or procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses" was fashioned by the 17th-century Italian Galileo Galilei,[108][109] with roots in the work of medieval scholars such as the 11th-century Iraqi physicist Ibn al-Haytham[110][111] and the 13th-century English friar Roger Bacon. [47] Hellenistic science, philosophy, architecture, literature and art later provided a foundation embraced and built upon by the Roman Empire as it swept up Europe and the Mediterranean world, including the Hellenistic world in its conquests in the 1st century BCE. The first expedition to circumnavigate the Earth (1522) was by Westerners, as well as the first journey to the South Pole (1911), and the first Moon landing (1969). In that sense, it has been denounced that one of The characteristics of Western culture is its ethnocentric character, a paradigm that they specifically call eurocentrism. A great number of popular global sports were first developed or codified in Europe. Westernization reached much of the world as part of the process of colonialism and continues to be a significant cultural phenomenon as a result of globalization. The West as a geographical area is unclear and undefined. The emergent mass media (film, radio, television and recorded music) created a global culture that could ignore national frontiers. So were the stethoscope, the electrocardiograph, and the endoscope. Westernization definition, the process of adopting, or of influencing others to adopt, ideas and practices characteristic of Europe and North America:Once preferred by most women in India, the sari became less popular due to westernization, with young women now preferring other attire such as skirts or pants. Westernization, the adoption of the practices and culture of western Europe by societies and countries in other parts of the world, whether through compulsion or influence. Likewise, Wicca, New Age spirituality and other neo-pagan belief systems enjoy notable minority support in Western states. Alexander's conquests led to the emergence of a Hellenistic civilization, representing a synthesis of Greek and Near-Eastern cultures in the Eastern Mediterranean region. For about five hundred years, the Roman Empire maintained the Greek East and consolidated a Latin West, but an East-West division remained, reflected in many cultural norms of the two areas, including language. For example, in Judaism and Christianity, God is the ultimate authority, while Greco-Roman tradition considers the ultimate authority to be reason. [b] The term Middle East in the mid-19th century included the territory east of the Ottoman Empire, but West of China—Greater Persia and Greater India—is now used synonymously with "Near East" in most languages. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. [83][84][85][86] GDP per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy,[87] while the Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies. Culture definition is - the customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group; also : the characteristic features of everyday existence (such as diversions or a way of life) shared by people in a place or time. The predecessor of the skyscraper can be found in the medieval towers erected in Bologna. The Church founded many cathedrals, universities, monasteries and seminaries, some of which continue to exist today. [124][125][126][127][128][129][130][131] The pencil, ballpoint pen, Cathode ray tube, liquid-crystal display, light-emitting diode, camera, photocopier, laser printer, ink jet printer, plasma display screen and world wide web were also invented in the West. Indeed, western culture is a societal matter that only affects the living conditions of the people in the region. Much of this set of traditions is collected in the Western canon. [132][133][134][135][136], Ubiquitous materials including aluminum, clear glass, synthetic rubber, synthetic diamond and the plastics polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride and polystyrene were discovered and developed or invented in the West. Bullfighting spread from Spain to its American colonies, and in the 19th century to France, where it developed into a distinctive form in its own right. The West as a geographical area is unclear and undefined. [164] In particular, over half of the populations of the Czech Republic (79% of the population was agnostic, atheist or irreligious), the United Kingdom (~25%), Germany (25–33%),[165] France (30–35%)[166][167][168] and the Netherlands (39–44%) are agnostic or atheist. Empiricism later gave rise to the scientific method, the scientific revolution, and the Age of Enlightenment. The Romans built immense structures such as the amphitheatres to house their festivals of sport. It traces its roots to prehistoric bull worship and sacrifice and is often linked to Rome, where many human-versus-animal events were held. Similarly, sports such as cricket, rugby, and netball were exported around the world, particularly among countries in the Commonwealth of Nations, thus India and Australia are among the strongest cricketing states, while victory in the Rugby World Cup has been shared among New Zealand, Australia, England, and South Africa. [citation needed], In mathematics, calculus, statistics, logic, vectors, tensors and complex analysis, group theory and topology were developed by Westerners. University professor, singer, Bachelor of Arts (Mention Cultural Promotion), with a Masters in Comparative Literature from the Central University of Venezuela, and PhD in History at the Autonomous University of Lisbon. Realistic portraiture is especially valued. [34] The globalization by successive European colonial empires spread European ways of life and European educational methods around the world between the 16th and 20th centuries. More often the ideology of a state's inhabitants is what will be used to categorize it as a Western society. Classical Greek learning was also subsumed, preserved, and elaborated in the rising Eastern world, which gradually supplanted Roman-Byzantine control as a dominant cultural-political force. The atom, nucleus, electron, neutron and proton were all unveiled by Westerners. “It is the catchword of every politician, the secular gospel of our economic, ‘free enterprise’ system, and the foundation of all our cultural activities.” Unlike the subtle and indirect way for Chinese people, westerners don’t mind a direct way for the truth. However, in the past it was also the Eastern Roman Empire that had many fe… While dance, music, visual art, story-telling, and architecture are human universals, they are expressed in the West in certain characteristic ways. [50] The rise of Christianity reshaped much of the Greco-Roman tradition and culture; the Christianised culture would be the basis for the development of Western civilization after the fall of Rome (which resulted from increasing pressure from barbarians outside Roman culture). However, in the past it was also the Eastern Roman Empire that had many features now seen as "Western," preserving Roman law, which was first codified by Justinian in the east,[38] as well as the traditions of scholarship around Plato, Aristotle, and Euclid that were later introduced to Italy during the Renaissance by Greek scholars fleeing the fall of Constantinople. Christianity would eventually emerge from the syncretism of Hellenic culture, Roman culture, and Second Temple Judaism, gradually spreading across the Roman Empire and eclipsing its antecedents and influences. Western civilization, western culture or the West is made up of European culturally derived societies (most notably in the Classical Roman heritage,Western Christianity (Catholicism and Protestantism), Democracy and Liberalism).This at least includes Western and Central Europe, English speaking North America, Australia and New Zealand.The identities of places such as … The polka, the square dance, the flamenco, and the Irish step dance are very well known Western forms of folk dance. Western culture has as its foundation the ideas and values derived from ancient Greek philosophy, Roman law, and Christianity. Life in a western country is pretty easy as they have number of resources and facilitates. [citation needed] European culture developed with a complex range of philosophy, medieval scholasticism, mysticism and Christian and secular humanism. The cultural distance between the West and Islam is narrower than Westerners think. The expansion of Greek culture into the Hellenistic world of the eastern Mediterranean led to a synthesis between Greek and Near-Eastern cultures,[2] and major advances in literature, engineering, and science, and provided the culture for the expansion of early Christianity and the Greek New Testament. The first digital broadcast satellite (DBS) system began transmitting in US in 1975. [100] The solo piano, symphony orchestra, and the string quartet are also significant musical innovations of the West. The Baroque style, which encompassed music, art, and architecture, was particularly encouraged by the post-Reformation Catholic Church as such forms offered a means of religious expression that was stirring and emotional, intended to stimulate religious fervor.[99]. The Latin-speaking Western Roman Empire consisted of Western Europe and Northwest Africa, while the Greek-speaking Eastern Roman Empire (later the Byzantine Empire) consisted of the Balkans, Asia Minor, Egypt and Levant. [148][149] The landing of robots on Mars (2004 and 2012) and on an asteroid (2001), the Voyager 2 explorations of the outer planets (Uranus in 1986 and Neptune in 1989), Voyager 1's passage into interstellar space (2013), and New Horizons' flyby of Pluto (2015) were significant recent Western achievements. The soap opera, a popular culture dramatic form, originated in the United States first on radio in the 1930s, then a couple of decades later on television. Western culture isn't confined to one particular race. "Isaac Newton." »Its Definition and Meaning [2019], What is Procrastination or Procasting? By the mid-20th century, Western culture was exported worldwide, and the development and growth of international transport and telecommunication (such as transatlantic cable and the radiotelephone) played a decisive role in modern globalization. This subjectivity, which grew out of the Christian belief that man could achieve a personal union with God, resisted all challenges and made itself the fulcrum on which all literary exposition turned, including the 20th-21st century novels.[97]. In the Catholic or Frankish west, Roman law became the foundation on which all legal concepts and systems were based. [115], The West is credited with the development of the steam engine and adapting its use into factories, and for the generation of electric power. The validity of reason was postulated in both Christian philosophy and the Greco-Roman classics. Sports became such a prominent part of their culture that the Greeks created the Olympic Games, which in ancient times were held every four years in a small village in the Peloponnesus called Olympia. The first modern Olympic games were held at Athens in 1896. Since Homeric literature (the Trojan Wars), through the accounts of the Persian Wars of Greeks against Persians by Herodotus, and right up until the time of Alexander the Great, there was a paradigm of a contrast between Greeks and other civilizations. The East Coast of the United States was originally a British colony, and as Americ… European art pays deep tribute to human suffering.[97]. The most striking part of a culture is different dance forms that the culture holds. Western classical is built on the same notes i.e Do Ra Me Fa So La Ti. The roots of the Western culture has its origins in Europe and carries a heritage of Germanic, Celtic, Hellenic, Slavic, Jewish, Latin, and other ethnic and linguistic groups. Coming into the modern era, the historical understanding of the East–West contrast—as the opposition of Christendom to its geographical neighbors—began to weaken. It has been disputed by some philosophers whether Western culture can be considered a historically sound, unified body of thought. Western culture is most strongly influenced by the Greco-Roman and Christian cultures.[1]. Jose Orlandis, 1993, "A Short History of the Catholic Church," 2nd edn. Important Western architectural motifs include the Doric, Corinthian, and Ionic columns, and the Romanesque, Gothic, Baroque, and Victorian styles are still widely recognised, and used even today, in the West. ), the latter conquered after the Punic Wars. The eradication of smallpox, was led by a Westerner, Donald Henderson. Eyeglasses, the telescope, the microscope and electron microscope, all the varieties of chromatography, protein and DNA sequencing, computerised tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance, x-rays, and light, ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy, were all first developed and applied in Western laboratories, hospitals and factories. Western culture is known for its materialism. Western culture refers to the culture of any country that is part of "the western world", and such a country is a country that has a European heritage/history with the original core … (Michael Adams, Trans. The Medieval West referred specifically to the Catholic "Latin" West, also called "Frankish" during Charlemagne's reign, in contrast to the Orthodox East, where Greek remained the language of the Byzantine Empire. A number of popular modern sports were devised or codified in Britain during the 19th Century and obtained global prominence—these include ping pong, modern tennis, association football, netball and rugby. [42] Appiah argues that the origin of the Western and European identity can be traced back to the Muslim invasion of Iberia where Christians would form a common Christian or European identity. What is thought of as Western thought today originates primarily from Greco-Roman and Germanic influences, and includes the ideals of the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, and the Enlightenment, as well as Christian culture. Elizabethan theatre, with such luminaries as William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, and Ben Jonson, is considered one of the most formative and important eras for modern drama. Since the context is highly biased and context-dependent, there is no agreed definition of what the "West" is. The Age of Discovery faded into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century, during which cultural and intellectual forces in European society emphasized reason, analysis, and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority. Western culture has been heavily influenced by the Renaissance, the Ages of Discovery and Enlightenment and the Industrial and Scientific Revolutions. Western societies are pole apart from eastern in field of science and technology. Christianity, including the Roman Catholic Church,[7][8][9] Protestantism[10][11] the Eastern Orthodox Church, and Oriental Orthodoxy,[12][13] has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization since at least the 4th century,[14][15][16][17][18] as did Judaism. The Industrial Revolution that began in Britain in the 18th Century brought increased leisure time, leading to more time for citizens to attend and follow spectator sports, greater participation in athletic activities, and increased accessibility. Many games are known as "football" were being played at colleges and universities in the United States in the first half of the 19th century. Most of the elements were discovered and named in the West, as well as the contemporary atomic theories to explain them. A wide range of sports was already established by the time of Ancient Greece and the military culture and the development of sports in Greece influenced one another considerably. [112], By the will of the Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel the Nobel Prize were established in 1895. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. (Chapters 9, 10, 11, 13, 25 and 26) and three times (Chapters 4, 8 and 19) in its sequel, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, accessed 8 December 2014. p. 1: "Western civilization owes far more to Catholic Church than most people—Catholic included—often realize. The University as a European Institution", in: harvnb error: no target: CITEREFVerger1999 (. Although political and economic models have varied, all have had in common the promotion of Western culture as a universal value. Photography, and the motion picture as both a technology and basis for entirely new art forms were also developed in the West. The philosophy and science of Classical Greece were largely forgotten in Europe after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, other than in isolated monastic enclaves (notably in Ireland, which had become Christian but was never conquered by Rome). The area that had formerly been considered the Orient ("the East") became the Near East as the interests of the European powers interfered with Meiji Japan and Qing China for the first time in the 19th century. [93][94], In the 20th century, Christianity declined in influence in many Western countries, mostly in the European Union where some member states have experienced falling church attendance and membership in recent years,[95] and also elsewhere. [60] This period is commonly referred to as the Renaissance. [39][40][41][page needed] Globalism has spread Western ideas so widely that almost all modern cultures are, to some extent, influenced by aspects of Western culture. The cultural definition of the Western world. [123], Communication devices and systems including the telegraph, the telephone, radio, television, communications and navigation satellites, mobile phone, and the Internet were all invented by Westerners. In particular, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth. In music, Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern Western musical notation in order to standardize liturgy throughout the worldwide Church,[98] and an enormous body of religious music has been composed for it through the ages. The method of preventing Rh disease, the treatment of diabetes, and the germ theory of disease were discovered by Westerners. [88] Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals, plants[89] and fire. Of Latin Christendom and the germ theory of disease were discovered by Westerners Judeo-Christian Greco-Roman! 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