The 1.5 million Swedes were surrounded by enemies with 14 times their population. The Swedish army was a product of several military reforms and innovations. 1. “Lion of Midnight” (that is, of the North). Gustavus Adolphus. King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden declared against the emperor. Reversed the course of the war so dramatically that it has been regarded as the most decisive engagement of the long conflict. Swedish Infantry Gustavus Adolphus, a key reformer of armed forces in the 17th century, was crowned king of Sweden at age 17. Gustavus Adolphus faced big problems when he came to the Swedish throne in 1611. Gustavus Adolphus fell at the Battle of Lutzen in 1632 (though his army still won). Gustavus Adolphus: A History of the Art of War from Its Revival After the Middle Ages to the End of the Spanish Succession War, with a Detailed Account of the Campaigns of the Great Swede, and of the Most Famous Campaign of Turenne, Condé, Eugene and Marlborough, Volume 2 The military genius of Gustavus Adolphus. He was well prepared for the greatest war of his life. —Nils Ahnlund, Gustavus Adolphus the Great. Now of course I'm aware Gustavus was the King of Sweden but between the modern era and the 1600's when he lived, there were many kings and many commanders. Richelieu, however, turned against the Habsburgs young Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, paying him a subsidy of a million livres a year by the treaty of Bärwald of the 23rd of January 1631. Historians are divided on why Gustavus chose to join the war, which had begun as a conflict between Protestant and Catholic states in the Holy Roman Empire (now Germany), following the election of Catholic Emperor Ferdinand II who was trying to impose his religion on the Empire. Among the Swedes besides Gustavus, Baner and Torstensson stand out. And his country was at war … Sweden’s King Gustavus Adolphus, with his flowing blond hair and unfailing courage, won the title “Lion of the North” among his countrymen, his allies and his enemies. The Thirty Years’ War resulted in no outright winner when peace was signed between the major belligerents in 1648. Gustavus Adolphus was the king of Sweden from 1611 to 1632 and is remembered as one of the greatest rulers in European history. Why was there overwhelming success in the victory at Breitenfeld? Gustavus is the only Swedish monarch to have been granted the title of ‘Magnus’, meaning ‘Great’, posthumously making his full title Gustavus Adolphus Magnus. One of the greatest military leaders of all time, Gustavus seemed poised to turn the tide of the conflict in favor of the northern European Protestants. Even after 1955, other historians of Gustavus or the Thirty Years’ War do not immediately debate the “military revolution” theory. When Gustavus Adolphus was killed, Sweden became just another faction in a complex network of interested parties, but throughout the remainder of the war, it was an important faction. 1. Clearly Wilson does not like his war and the politics of the war to be too dramatic and in this he clearly differs from his publishers who have printed on the cover of the book a quotation from one of Gustavus Adolphus’s letters: ‘This is a fight between God and the Devil. -- Secret Triumph of Wallenstein. He really won one victory, at Breitenfeld, lost at Alte Veste and got killed at Luetzen. So I've been reading a lot of literature and many, many modern figures often refer to Gustavus Adolphus as the "Father of (modern) War". Gustavus was crowned at age 17 when his father, Karl IX, died prematurely in the midst of the bitter War of Kalmar with Denmark.… Yet, in this stage of the war, “The Lion of the North” or “the Golden King”, as Gustavus Adolphus the Great of Sweden was known, entered the conflict. Lutzen was a pyrrhic victory for the Protestants, who had lost thousands of their best men and their greatest leader. -- Gustavus Adolphus defends Nuremberg. However, Gustavus was also responsible for many domestic reforms which pushed Sweden from being just another Baltic state to being the most dominant power in the region. Gustavus Adolphus was an accomplished soldier and with the help of Catholic France, he freed himself from the war against Poland with the Treaty of Altmark of September 1629. Gustavus Adolphus, the Golden King, the Lion of the North, and the Father of Modern Warfare was a 17th-century Swedish warrior-king who basically invented the concept of the cavalry sabre charge primarily because he wanted to lead thundering hordes of rampaging cavalry blade-first into the enemy – even though the dude couldn't even wear armor into combat because his ribs … F. Solano Lopez, the megalomaniac dictator of Paraguay in 1870, was killed in battle. 2. Why? It was Gustavus’ decision to enter into the Thirty Years’ War in 1630 that he is most famous for internationally. In 1630, the Protestant forces were on their heels when Gustavus Adolphus, the Protestant king of Sweden, intervened, pushing the Catholic Imperial army out of much of Germany. ... threatening Gustavus Adolphus’s supply chain. Gustavus Adolphus lead Sweden during her glory years in the Thirty Years War. -- Distress of the Emperor. Gustavus Adolphus saw himself as the protector of Protestantism in Germany and if north Germany was safe then so was Sweden. 1. Cardinal Richelieu was also France entered openly into the war in 1635. King of Sweden, military reformer, statesman, and greatest general of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648). ); widely known in English by his Latinized name Gustavus Adolphus, or as Gustavus Adolphus the Great (Swedish language: Gustav Adolf den store, Latin language: Gustavus Adolphus Magnus, a formal posthumous distinction passed by the Riksdag of the Estates in 1634); was the King of Sweden from 1611 … Discuss why the Swedish were inclined to join in the war; KEY POINTS. Though not as good strategically as Gustavus, they were still formidable marchers and good at maneuver, and the former, in addition to winning some imaginative victories, largely helped recover the Swedish military position after Nordlingen. Gustavus Adolphus is one of the most inspiring characters of the Reformation. Under his reign, Sweden emerged as a great power in Europe. Richelieu. ... threatening Gustavus Adolphus’s supply chain. Sources The Thirty Years War by C. V. Wedgwood Gustavus Adolphus and the Struggle of Protestantism for Existence by C. R. L. Fletcher 2. Oxenstierna, the Swedish chancellor, anxious to preserve Sweden's hold in Germany, supported Richelieu. He is accredited with elevating Sweden to a position of immense political, military, and religious stature through his involvement in the Thirty Years War. The Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years’ War, which took place between 1630 and 1635, was a major turning point of the war, often considered to be an independent conflict. Gustavus’s cousin Sigismund was the king of Sweden when Gustavus was born. -- He offers to Join Gustavus Adolphus. What were the other results of the Thirty Years' War? The Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years’ War, which took place between 1630 and 1635, was a major turning point of the war, often considered to be an independent conflict. He had an agreement with France. The most important historiographical debate pertaining to Gustavus Adolphus in the Thirty Years’ War is, in fact, one that is not even discussed until 1955—the “military revolution” debate. -- Gustavus takes Munich. The only way… Discuss why the Swedish were inclined to join in the war; KEY POINTS. Give the date and the terms of the Peace of Westphalia. The last European ruler to die in battle seems to have been Charles XII of Sweden in 1718. “Lion of the North” Gustavus Adolphus and the Thirty Years’ War: Fighting the Holy Roman Empire – Part I On 9 December 1594, Gustav II Adolf was born. The northern German territories would remain Protestant. 1618 2. a. 1. Gustav II Adolf (9 December 1594 – 6 November 1632, O.S. His achievements must surely have inspired Peter the Great to do the same for Russia. Gustavus Adolphus day is marked in Sweden on 6 November. After reading Peter Wilson's Europe's Tragedy: The history of the 30 Years War I don't understand why Gustavus Adolphus is so respected as a general. One of the king’s great achievements, looking at his reign from perhaps his viewpoint, was the creation of an army that did great things on the battlefield, but more detail would have been welcome. He was the financier behind the various Protestant coalitions and interventions (including that of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden),and it was Richelieu that convinced Louis XIII that France had to enter the war directly to prevent a total Hapsburg victory after the Swedish army and its Weimariner allies were destroyed at Nordlingen in 1634. With all these elements, Gustavus was able to create a cohesive, well disciplined army, with tactics that integrated the infantry, cavalry and artillery. The final stage of the Thirty Years War began. What side did France join during the Thirty Years War? -- Junction of Wallenstein with the Bavarians. The organisation of the Swedish army with its smaller unit sizes and higher numbers of NCOs and junior officers also became the standard model for Europe. Protestant 2. -- The Saxon Army invades Bohemia, and takes Prague. Gustavus Adolphus’ effective use of supply magazines, linear tactics and use of lighter artillery and firearms were steadily adopted by all the European powers. His country was poor and sparsely populated, but already the ambitious young “Lion of Midnight” (that is, of the North) intended to enrich it with new lands and looted wealth. The initial phase, what historians refer to as the Bohemian Revolt, was a result of the Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, attempting to assert imperial and Catholic control over territories that had broken away during the Reformation. His tactics were to repeatedly send his troops in frontal attacks on Imperials. The rapid rise to fame of Gustavus Adolphus, the young King of Sweden, his military innovations and dramatic victories in battle turned the tide in The Thirty Years War … France feared the growth of Hapsburg power. In the end, it played a significant role in creating the terms for the peace treaty. -- Wallenstein re-assumes the Command. 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