The specific dates of the war are from August 6, 1838, (the Gallatin election battle) to November 1, 1838, when Joseph Smith surrendered at Far West. [55] The Missourians and their families, outnumbered by the Mormons, made their way to neighboring counties. News of the battle quickly spread and contributed to an all-out panic in northwestern Missouri. With one child in each arm, she waded across an icy creek to safety in Adam-ondi-Ahman. Missouri blamed the Mormons for the conflict and forced the Latter-day Saints to sign over all their lands in order to pay for the state militia muster. The county seat, Gallatin, is reported to have been "completely gutted" – only one shoe store remained unscathed. [24] Possession became unclear and the dissenters threatened the church with lawsuits. On October 19, 1838, the day after Gallatin was burned, Thomas B. Marsh and fellow apostle Orson Hyde left the association of the Church. They moved into a blacksmith shop which they hoped to use as a make-shift defensive fortification. [37], At a meeting at Lyman Wight's home between leading Mormons and non-Mormons, both sides agreed not to protect anyone who had broken the law, and to surrender all offenders to the authorities. [31], In the speech, Rigdon declared that the Latter Day Saints would no longer be driven from their homes by persecution from without or dissension from within, and that if enemies came again to drive out the Saints, "And that mob that comes on us to disturb us, it shall be between us and them a war of extermination; for we will follow them until the last drop of their blood is spilled; or else they will have to exterminate us, for we will carry the seat of war to their own houses and their own families, and one party or the other shall be utterly destroyed..."[26], The Gallatin Election Day Battle was a skirmish between Mormon and non-Mormon settlers in the newly formed Daviess County, Missouri, on August 6, 1838. In the summer and fall of 1838, animosity between Mormons and their neighbors in western Missouri erupted into an armed conflict known as the Mormon War. [69] Instead of staying in the strip, Bogart passed into southern Caldwell County and began to disarm Mormons. [32] [33] William Peniston, a candidate for the state legislature, made disparaging statements about the Mormons, calling them "horse-thieves and robbers", [34] and warned them not to vote in the election. As a result of the war, nearly all Mormons in Missouri, estimated at more than ten thousand, were forced to leave the state. Once Latter-day Saints were disarmed, mounted squads visited Mormon settlements with threats and enough beatings and destruction of homes to force flight. Of the Missourians, only one, Moses Rowland, was killed. On September 7, Smith and Lyman Wight appeared before Judge Austin A King to answer the charges. [84] Smith believed that Hinkle had betrayed him,[87] but Hinkle maintained his innocence and claimed that he was following Smith's orders. After the stress of being expelled from Millport into the snow, Milford Donaho's wife gave birth prematurely, and the child was severely injured during the birth. They believed that the Native Americans were descendants of Israelites and proselytized among them extensively. [57] The plundered goods were deposited in the Bishop's storehouse at Diahman. Although he had refrained from stopping the illegal anti-Mormon siege of De Witt, he now mustered 2,500 state militia to put down what he perceived to be a Mormon insurrection against the state. In this major new interpretation of those events, LeSueur argues that while a number of prejudices and fears stimulated … "[48][49], On October 9, A C Caldwell returned to De Witt to report that the Governor's response was that the "quarrel was between the Mormons and the mob" and that they should fight it out.[48]. The Far West militia was marched out of the city and forced to turn over their weapons to General Lucas. It should also be noted that none of the participants in the raid ever cited the order as justification for their actions. [118], Joseph Smith vehemently denied Bennett's account, speculating that Boggs—no longer governor, but campaigning for state senate—was attacked by an election opponent. By this time, most of the Saints had be… Most of these refugees settled in or near what would become the city of Nauvoo, Illinois. According to Latter Day Saint witness Reed Peck, when Smith was told that the Mormons would be expected to leave the state, he replied that "he did not care" and that he would be glad to get out of the "damnable state" anyway. The Mormons believed—after a revelation recorded on June 6, 1831—that if they were righteous they would inherit the land held by others ("which is now the land of your enemies") in Missouri. While Mormon women and children scattered and hid in the surrounding woods and nearby homes, Mormon men and boys rallied to defend the settlement. [79], None of the Missourians were ever prosecuted for their role in the Haun's Mill Massacre. [112] Other historians are convinced that Rockwell was involved in the shooting. The Mormons responded defensively, but hos-tilities gradually escalated until both Mormon and non-Mormon vigi- 1838 Mormon War - Daviess County Expedition. [40][41] After the stress of being expelled from Millport into the snow, Milford Donaho's wife gave birth prematurely, and the child was severely injured during the birth. [61], Many Latter Day Saints were greatly troubled by the occurrences. At the same time, a leadership struggle between the church presidency and Missouri leaders led to the excommunication of several high-placed Mormon leaders, including Oliver Cowdery (one of the Three Witnesses and the church's original "second elder"), David Whitmer (another of the Three Witnesses and Stake President of the Missouri Church), as well as John Whitmer, Hiram Page, William Wines Phelps and others.I[23] These "dissenters", as they came to be called, owned a significant amount of land in Caldwell County, much of which was purchased when they were acting as agents for the church. In all, 17 Latter Day Saints were killed in what came to be called the Haun's Mill Massacre. John Corrill, one of the Mormon leaders, remembered: In 1837, problems at the church's headquarters in Kirtland, Ohio, centering around the Kirtland Safety Society bank, led to schism. News of the battle quickly spread and contributed to an all-out panic in northwestern Missouri. A militia under the command of Samuel Bogart was authorized by General Atchison to patrol the no-man's land between Ray and Caldwell Counties known as "Bunkham's Strip" – an unincorporated territory 6 miles (9.7 km) east to west and 1-mile (1.6 km) north to south. According to Latter Day Saint witness Reed Peck, when Smith was told that the Mormons would be expected to leave the state, he replied that "he did not care" and that he would be glad to get out of the "damnable state" anyway. [27] Two days after Rigdon preached his Salt Sermon, 80 prominent Mormons including Hyrum Smith signed the so-called Danite Manifesto, which warned the dissenters to "depart or a more fatal calamity shall befall you." OK, so let’s set the stage: In 1833, Latter-day Saints who had gathered in Jackson County Missouri were persecuted and forced out. Public opinion has recoiled from a summary and forcible removal of our negro population;—much more likely will it be to revolt at the violent expulsion of two or three thousand souls, who have so many ties to connect them with us in a common brotherhood. [1], Forcefully deprived of their homes and property, the Latter Day Saints temporarily settled in the area around Jackson County, especially in Clay County. (3)-- 18 October 1838 [Missouri War] General Parks visits Mormons and Missourians in Daviess. [48] [48][49], General David R. Atchison wrote a letter to Governor Lilburn Boggs on October 16, 1838. The conflict, popularly known among Missourians as the Mormon War, began when anti-Mormon vigilantes attempted to prevent the Saints from settling in Carroll County. Many of Boggs's constituents felt that he had mis-managed the situation, by failing to intervene earlier in the crisis, and then by overreacting on the basis of partial and incorrect information. [95], The defendants, consisting of about 60 men including Joseph Smith, Jr. and Sidney Rigdon, were turned over to a civil court of inquiry in Richmond under Judge Austin A. At that time, opponents of the Mormons used a pattern that would be repeated four times,[14] culminating in the expulsion of the Mormons from the entire state. Several Mormon homes near Millport were burned and their inhabitants expelled into the snow. [105] One resolution passed by the Quincy town council read: Resolved: That the gov of Missouri, in refusing protection to this class of people when pressed upon by an heartless mob, and turning upon them a band of unprincipled Militia, with orders encouraging their extermination, has brought a lasting disgrace upon the state over which he presides.[106]. [19], In the eyes of many non-Mormon citizens (including Alexander Doniphan),[10] these settlements outside of Caldwell County were a violation of the compromise. On September 7, Smith and Lyman Wight appeared before Judge Austin A. Major General Samuel D. Lucas marched the state militia to Far West and laid siege to the Mormon headquarters. Jacob Stollings, a Gallatin merchant, was reported to have been generous in selling to Mormons on credit, but his store was plundered and burned with the rest. [89] Smith believed that Hinkle had betrayed him,[92] but Hinkle maintained his innocence and claimed that he was following Smith's orders. To do so, would be to act with extreme cruelty. In this book written by Stephen C. LeSueur, the events leading up to the 1838 Mormon War that took place in Missouri are documented. Around 200 non-Mormons gathered in Gallatin on election day to prevent Mormons from voting. [53] On October 18, these Mormons began to act as vigilantes and marched under arms in three groups to the Missourian settlements of Gallatin, Millport and Grindstone Fork. Hey guys, in this episode we’re going to talk about the Missouri Mormon War of 1838. However, Reynolds was unable to capture Rockwell. McBrier's house was among those burned. Initial reaction by Missourians was mixed. [38], The Mormons also visited Sheriff William Morgan and several other leading Daviess County citizens, also forcing some of them to sign statements disavowing any ties to the vigilance committees. While Mormon women and children scattered and hid in the surrounding woods and nearby homes, Mormon men and boys rallied to defend the settlement. During their period of organization in Missouri, the Danites operated as a vigilante group and took a central role in the events of the 1838 Momon War. [22], The earlier settlers saw expansion of Mormon communities outside of Caldwell County as a political and economic threat. It did not matter whether or not the Mormons at [Haun's] mill had taken any part in the disturbance which had occurred [in Daviess County]; it was enough that they were Mormons. A committee sent to De Witt ordered the Latter-day Saints to leave. After the court martial, he ordered General Alexander William Doniphan: You will take Joseph Smith and the other prisoners into the public square of Far West and shoot them at 9 o'clock tomorrow morning.[94]. [89], Joseph Smith Jr attempted to negotiate with Lucas, but it became clear that Lucas considered his conditions to be non-negotiable. One contemporary critic of the Mormons wrote: Mormonism is a monstrous evil; and the only place where it ever did or ever could shine, this side of the world of despair, is by the side of the Missouri mob. Major General Samuel D. Lucas marched the state militia to Far West and laid siege to the Mormon headquarters. [34], At the start of the brawl, Mormon John Butler let out a call, "Oh yes, you Danites, here is a job for us!" ", http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/findingaids/miscMormonRecords.asp?rec=doc, http://books.google.com/books?id=TcfYO8JFElcC, "An appeal to the American people : being an account of the persecutions of the Church of Latter Day Saints, and of the barbarities inflicted on them by the inhabitants of the state of Missouri", http://patriot.lib.byu.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/NCMP1820-1846&CISOPTR=2837&REC=4, "Mormonism in All Ages; or the Rise, Progress and Causes of Mormonism; with the Biography of Its Author and Founder, Joseph Smith, Jr", http://ia600401.us.archive.org/31/items/mormonisminalla00turn/mormonisminalla00turn.pdf, Sidney Rigdon: A Portrait of Religious Excess, Mel Tungate's Battle of Crooked River sources website, History of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Volume 2 Chapter 11, Length of U.S. participation in major wars, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/1838_Mormon_War?oldid=4529152, Mormons stripped of property and expelled from Missouri. "[58], The Missourians evicted from their homes were no better prepared than the Mormon refugees had been. The gun was found to have been stolen from a local shopkeeper, who identified "that hired man of Ward's" as the most likely culprit. . [Missouri War] Judge King orders General Atchison to raise four hundred troops and disperse the Mormons and non-Mormon vigilantes. [120], Whatever the case, the following year Rockwell was arrested, tried, and acquitted of the attempted murder,[118] although most of Boggs' contemporaries remained convinced of his guilt. In 1841, he was ordained as a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. [36], When about thirty Latter Day Saints approached the polling place, a Missourian named Dick Weldon declared that in Clay County the Mormons had not been allowed to vote, "no more than negroes." Tensions rose in Clay County as the Mormon population grew. It did not matter whether or not the Mormons at [Haun's] mill had taken any part in the disturbance which had occurred [in Daviess County]; it was enough that they were Mormons. Clark V. Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions: Documents of the 1833-1838 Missouri Conflict, Religious Studies Center, BYU, 1992. [57], When a Mormon band plundered and burned the Taylor home, one young Mormon, Benjamin F Johnson, argued his fellow vigilantes into leaving a horse for a pregnant Mrs Taylor and her children to ride to safety. "[60] Some Latter Day Saints claimed that some of the Missourians burned their own homes in order to blame the Mormons. [43] The citizens of De Witt sent non-Mormon Henry Root to appeal to Judge King and General Parks for assistance. Lathrop's wife and remaining children died shortly after their rescue. [13], Mormon petitions and lawsuits failed to bring any satisfaction: the non-Mormons in Jackson refused to allow the Mormons to return and reimbursement for confiscated and damaged property was refused. [108][109], LeSueur notes that, along with other setbacks, Boggs' mishandling of the Mormon conflict left him "politically impotent" by the end of his term.[110]. Fire and Sword: A History of the Latter-day Saints in Northern Missouri, 1836-39 (ebook Part 1) (Kindle Locations 60-61). My brigade shall march for Liberty to-morrow morning, at 8 o'clock, and if you execute those men, I will hold you responsible before an earthly tribunal, so help me God! Overwhelmingly, these claims are contradicted by the majority of both Missourian and Latter Day Saint testimony (which implicate the Mormons in the burnings) and also by the evidence of the looted property found in the possession of Latter Day Saints. Murdock refused, citing their right as American citizens to settle where pleased. 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