The major direct causes of maternal mortality are abortion and prolonged labor/obstructed labor while the major indirect causes of death are malaria and anemia. The case notes of all cases of maternal deaths from January 2007 to December 2011 were retrieved and relevant data obtained and analyzed. To review and document the MMR. Reducing unbooked emergencies should be a priority with continuous programs including orthodox practices in order to meet the fifth Millennium Development Goal. Haemorrhage accounts for 43.4% of causes, while pre-eclampsia or eclampsia accounts for 36.0% of deaths. All maternal deaths and their, Objective: Autopsy is an invaluable tool in accurately determining the cause of maternal death. mote the utilization of available health facilities by pregnant women. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on the proportion of maternal deaths among non-AIDS deaths in women ages 15-49, fertility, birth attendants, and GDP. Despite having one of the highest rates of maternal mortality in the world, many cases of women dying during childbirth in Nigeria are still unreported, a report has shown.. (2003). Using most recent estimates of total fertility for the state, the MMR was estimated. There were 2,177 deliveries and 39 maternal deaths during the study period, with a maternal mortality ratio of 1,791/100,000 live births. Trial registration Results: Results It averages 940 deaths per 100,000 live births, with disparities among countries and between urban and rural areas in the same countries. Maternal mortality was higher for unbooked patients than for booked patients (odds ratio 5.1, 95% CI 3.5-6.2, P < 0.0001). It was 54 percent of total births. Jigawa State has an extremely high maternal mortality ratio underscoring the urgent need for health systems improvement and interventions to accelerate reductions in MMR. The main causes of the reported high mortality ratio in northern Nigeria are haemorrhage, eclampsia, sepsis and unsafe abortion, while the indirect causes include hepatitis, anaesthetic complications, HIV/AIDS-related deaths and acute renal failure. Maternal mortality fact sheet. factors limiting the utilization of maternal healthcare services But despite the prevalence of maternal mortalities in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, both regions experienced a significant drop in their maternal mortality rates—40% and 60%, respectively—between 2000 and 2017. As UNICEF states, Nigeria loses 145 women to maternal mortality each day. The etiology of maternal mortality can be categorized as medical, socio‐economic, cultural, behavioral, and political causes. The mean age of cases was 40.11 ± 20.25. Data on maternal deaths were collected from a randomly selected sample of medical institutions in the Western State of Nigeria for the years 1972 and 1973. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. The highest maternal mortality rate in the country was reached in 2005: 946 (of 100,000 births). In Nigeria, malaria is a major public health problem. Up to 67/794 (8.4%) patients referred from other facilities died compared to 8/1934 (0.4%) booked patients (OR: 22.1; 95% CI: 10.2-50.1). About 2,300 children under the age of five die each day and these could have been prevented had they received essential interventions. Obstetric care reviews and audits are useful activities to undertake and should be promoted by improving the processes used to conduct them, as well as extending their implementation to rural and basic level health facilities and to the community. For this purpose, the published work was reviewed by searching the PubMed and BioMed Central databases for retrospective maternal mortality reviews and autopsies after the year 2000. NCDC reports 1,479 new COVID-19 infections, 23 deaths across 24 states, FCT. Medically reviewed by. Of 896 reported deaths, 549 were classified as direct, 302 as indirect and 45 as unknown. Maternal and neonatal mortality remains unacceptably high in this setting. Given Nigeria’s high maternal mortality, the lessons learned from past experiences can provide a good evidence base for informed decision making. Incidence of SMO, health service events, case fatality rate, and mortality index (% of maternal death/SMO). carried out in two tertiary and two secondary healthcare institutions in Ebonyi state, Southeastern Nigeria over the 3-year period January 2003 to December 2005. Background In our environment, most studies were based on only a single health institution, leading to varying reports of ratios and causes of maternal death. Ethnicity had no significant influence on maternal death (χ(2) = 15.550, P = 0.21). Starting with Table 4, 62% of all births in 2008 took place in the home in Nigeria, clearly suggesting a strong cause of Nigeria’s high maternal mortality ratio. Background: Maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa has remained high and this is a reflection of the poor quality of maternal services. Seventy-seven (46.7% (77/165)) of the maternal death patients had no formal education. A retrospective study was, Objective: The Maternal Mortality Ratio is an important health indicator. The leading causes of death in this study, hemorrhage, cardiovascular disease and eclampsia are highly avoidable and treatable. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication. Approximately 71.4% of the maternal deaths were due to direct causes and 28.6% were due to indirect causes. Emergent situations in the country as well as conflicts and natural disaster has made it difficult to make any progress regarding lowering maternal deaths. Direct and indirect causes of maternal mortality as identified in the articles included in the review, All content in this area was uploaded by Saima Tasneem on Mar 02, 2020, All content in this area was uploaded by Saima Tasneem on Dec 30, 2019. And in 2015, mortality ratio for Nigeria was 814 deaths per 100,000 live births. Conclusion: Although maternal mortality ratio in IRI could be comparable with the developed countries but its pattern is following developing countries and with this study we had provided reliable data for other prospective studies. Every minute in the world, 380 women become pregnant and 190 face an unplanned or unwanted pregnancy (Garg, 2006). Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. The impact of unsafe abortion on maternal mortality is underappreciated because of the clandestine nature of the practice. Maternal Mortality Rate, Causes, and Prevention By. The most common age group involved in RTA was 20-29 years (n = 23; 22%). Methods: Medical Factors that Cause Maternal Deaths. Efforts toward liberation of the girl-child from the shackles of early marriage have continued to be resisted through tradition, culture and religion in some parts of Nigeria. The major direct causes of maternal mortality in this study were: pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (27%), hemorrhage (22%), and sepsis (12%). Eclampsia, pre-eclampsia, and hemorrhage were reported to be the most common direct causes of maternal mortality, all of which are preventable by simple maneuvers like regular antenatal checkups, early detection, presence of trained birth attendants to assist with the delivery, easy access to health facilities, etc. Twitter. Nigeria is among the six countries that record over 50% of all maternal deaths in the world. Nigeria - Maternal mortality Number of maternal deaths. Number of maternal deaths in Nigeria was 67,000 as of 2017. One of each four births is assisted by a relative or some other untrained people. Forty-two tertiary hospitals. 3 Age group of 30-39 years accounted for 22.1% (n = 73) of cases, closely followed by the age group of 20-29 years, which accounted for 20.5% (n = 68) of cases. In fact, Africa has the highest maternal mortality rate in the world and Nigeria is one of the countries with the highest rate in the region. The highest danger of maternal death threatens teenage girls under the age of 15. Preventive measures should focus on this delay, which is usually beyond the reach of the hospital. The 7,069 respondents reported 10,957 sisters who reached reproductive age. Huge maternal mortality reflects injustice in access to medical and sanitary services in some countries. 0. Most deaths (9/28; 32.1%) were in the age group of 20-24 years. Prevention of maternal death in a Nigerian village. We recommend that thorough cardiovascular management should be instituted during antenatal care, and the government should focus more on an emergency response such as availability of adequate blood and blood products in the hospitals. Its highest value over the past 17 years was 67,000 in 2017, while its lowest value was 62,000 in 2007. Nigeria to determine the magnitude, trends, causes and characteristics of maternal deaths before and after the launch of the Safe Motherhood Initiative in Nigeria, with a view to suggesting strategic interventions to reduce these deaths. There was disparity between the clinical and autopsy diagnoses in 34 of the 84 cases (38.1%). Nigeria has consistently demonstrated one of the most abysmally poor reproductive health indices in the world, maternal mortality inclusive. Postpartum hemorrhage was the most common cause of death followed by eclampsia. Diseases of the cardiovascular system accounted for 41.8% (n = 41) of cases, whereas pregnancy-associated deaths (excluding criminal abortions) accounted for 29.6% (n = 29) of cases in the natural causes group. Maternal mortality is high the world over, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria. This is a 10-year retrospective study of all maternal deaths seen in our center from January 01, 2005 to December 31, 2014. A prospective, multicenter, community-based study is needed to fully assess the magnitude of the problem. Preeclampsia/eclampsia and anemia accounted for 12.4% each. Tweetable abstract: Materials and methods: Overall, the three leading causes of death were obstetric hemorrhage (30.9%), complications of abortion (23.8%), and nongenital (nonobstetric) infections (14.2%). Besides, most of them can be prevented. The objective of this study was to estimate the lifetime risk (LTR) of maternal death and the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Jigawa State, Northern Nigeria using the Sisterhood Method. Materials and methods: After provision of an electronic Registry system for date entry, a descriptive-retrospective data collection had been performed for all maternal Deaths in March 2009- March 2012. Accurate estimation of maternal mortality is challenging in low-income settings such as Nigeria where vital registration is incomplete. Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association. Health Minister Osagie Ehanire . To address the high maternal mortality rates, Minister of Health, Professor Isaac Adewole in July 2017 inaugurated a 34-member Task Force to accelerate reduction of maternal mortality in Nigeria. There are few papers on autopsy based causes of maternal mortality. The indirect causes were: anemia, anesthesia, and HIV encephalopathy. Women die from complications during and after pregnancy and child-bearing. The leading causes of maternal mortality were preeclampsia/eclampsia (9/28; 32.1%), obstetric hemorrhage (8/28; 28.6%) and severe anemia (3/28; 10.7%). challenge in the developing world. Main outcome measures: The Demographic Health Survey in Nigeria reported that doctors, nurses or midwives take part in one-third of the births in Nigeria. Nigeria’s maternal mortality rate worst in the world — Ehanire. We presented the distribution and causes of maternal mortality in Islamic Republic of Iran. Maternal mortality is a major health problem, especially in Nigeria, where accurate autopsy-based data on the prevalent causes are not readily available. The ratio increased from 756.8 in 2003 to 897.6 in 2004 and then to 1052.2 in 2005. Major causes of deaths were hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (28.0%), haemorrhage (21.3%) and sepsis (20.0%). Methods News Agency-January 15, 2021 0. Others may exist before pregnancy but worsen during pregnancy. This extrapolated reduction over 15 years is about 38% less than the target of 75% reduction. This systematic review was done keeping in view the high maternal mortality rates in Nigeria, to identify the major direct and indirect causes and thus enable us to understand the gaps between what is and what ought to be. Huge maternal mortality reflects in… The mean age at the time of death was 27.9±7.5 years. Major risk factors include grand multiparity, maternal age of > or =35 years, low socioeconomic status (SES), and unscheduled emergencies. Most of the maternal deaths occurred in unbooked patients (98%) and within the first 48 hours of admission (76%). Culture, religion and customs that prevent access to care contribute immensely to these deaths. The aim of this study was therefore to accurately determine the causes of maternal death as seen in a tertiary health facility in Nigeria. This was a retrospective study of all maternal deaths recorded at the Federal Medical Centre Yola (FMCY). Malaria is a global health challenge and remains a cause of mortality. Background: Maternal mortality remains a major problem in many parts of the world including Nigeria.Understanding the causes of maternal mortality is crucial in confronting the challenge of unyielding high rates. Infant mortality rate in Nigeria, causes and prevention. This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply. We had access to pertained data of 896 cases (95.2%) for review in our study. Severe bleeding (mainly postpartum hemorrhage); stronger healthcare systems, which rely on effective facilities. Fig. These values are still unacceptably high and drastic measures need to be taken to ensure this. Objectives: To determine the incidence and causes of maternal mortality as well as its temporal distribution over the last decade (1990–1999).Study design: All maternal deaths recorded within the study period in the State of Kano, Northern Nigeria, were analyzed. Four types of barriers were reported related to: transport and referral; health workers; availability of services; and organisational factors. The original research that generated the data for this secondary analysis was funded by the UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP), a co-sponsored programme executed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Findings: 4.7 percent of the total birth while maternal mortality ratio is 545 per respondents had a tertiary education. Olu Oduntan S, Odunlami VB. At the middle of the first decade of the new millennium, a large number of pregnant women receiving care in this centre continue to die from preventable causes of maternal death. Only 22.9 percent had and child mortality rate in Nigeria. As a result, the maternal mortality that has to do with AIDS is 11 deaths per 100.000 live births. Banditry, insurgency hinder pregnant women from ante-natal services. The neonatal mortality rate was calculated at 46/1,000 live births. Most choose not to do so because they are afraid of receiving low quality care. In order to do so, current data on maternal mortality is essential for careproviders and policy makers to appreciate the burden of the problem and understand how best to distribute resources. For UPSC 2021 Preparation, follow BYJU'S. The leading causes of maternal death in this study are similar to those in other developing countries. This is a 10-year retrospective study of all maternal deaths seen in our center from January 01, 2005 to December 31, 2014. Background: Maternal mortality is still a major risk for women of childbearing age in Nigeria. Conclusion: There was a decline in MMR during the period of study. The Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) in Nigeria was 560 per 100,000 live births in 2013. Measures to reduce preventable hospital deaths should also be put in place. The maternal mortality ratio of 2989.2 per 100,000 live births was significantly higher than that reported for 1988-1997 in the same institution. National ID: FG announces final deadline for NIN registration, blocking of SIM c... Little baby laughs hard as mum tries to twerk for the gram (video), Emotional moment Trump's children break down in tears as their father says goodbye to presidency, Nigerian lady who fries yellow garri for a living showcases her work (photos), Bored? It happens, especially, if they are not under observation. Results: If this trend is not reversed, Nigeria may not be able to achieve the millennium developmental goal number 5 (MDG 5). Sixty-three (84.0%) of the deaths were direct maternal deaths while 12 (16.0%) were indirect maternal deaths. The Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) in Nigeria was 560 per 100,000 live births in 2013. Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die from pregnancy-related causes while pregnant or within 42 days of pregnancy termination per 100,000 live births. Nigeria is one of the countries with the highest maternal mortality rates in the world, with the country accounting for about 20 per cent of global maternal deaths. The study employed Error RTA was the most common cause of accidental deaths (n = 105; 86%). Of 69 articles, 11 full-text articles were reviewed and six of them were finally included in the study. Of the 1,026 deaths in these sisters, 300 (29.2%) occurred during pregnancy, childbirth or within 42 days after delivery. Objective: Most (14/28; 50%) deaths occurred within 24 h of admission. Infant mortality in Nigeria is still a big problem. Like many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, the leading causes of maternal death in Nigeria are obstetric hemorrhage, eclampsia, sepsis and complications from unsafe abortions [ 14, 15 ]. Abortion and HIV-related mortality accounted for 1.3% and 4.0% of maternal deaths, respectively. The national maternal mortality ratio has remained elevated despite efforts to reduce maternal deaths. Know the causes of an increase in MMR. More than half of maternal deaths occur in places with unstable conditions and humanitarian problems. Prevention of Maternal Mortality in Nigeria: Public Health to the Rescue ... maternal death rates [4,11-13]. By comparison, the total number of maternal deaths in 2015 in the 46 most developed countries was 1700, resulting in a maternal mortality ratio of 12 maternal deaths per 100 000 live births. No significant difference (P = 0.07) in mean time to reach the hospital was noted between fatal cases (1.9 hours, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.6) and nonfatal cases (1.4 hours, 95% CI 1.4-1.5). Funding: Adoption of evidence-based protocol for the management of eclampsia and improvement in the quality of obstetric care for unbooked emergencies would go a long way to significantly reduce the frequency of maternal deaths in this institution. This study therefore examines the maternal health implications of early marriage on young mothers in the study area. For homicides, shotguns were mainly used (n = 31; 31.6%), distantly followed by those caused by the use of sharp objects (n = 17; 17.3%) and most cases belonged to the age groups of 40-49 years and 30-39 years (21.5% and 19.5%, respectively). The highest maternal mortality rates are in Africa, with a lifetime risk of 1 in 16; the lowest rates are in western nations (1:2800), with a global ratio of 400 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. This study presents the magnitude and distribution of causes of maternal deaths at the beginning of the 21st century in a Nigerian referral hospital and derives recommendations to reduce its frequency. There are 17 percent of births that happen without any help. SMO occurred in 587 women with HDP: 298 maternal near-misses and 289 maternal deaths. This rate of maternal mortality in Nigeria is highest in northwest geopolitical zone which comprised Sokoto state. Three elements stand out in Nigeria as contributing to maternal mortality: delays in Caesarean section, unavailability of magnesium sulphate and lack of safe blood transfusion services. While some of the occurrences are predicted during routine prenatal care, most occur spontaneously without warning signs. Materials and methods: Almost all accidents of maternal death appear in evolving countries. Autopsy records are taken from the death register and other information were extracted from the postmortem reports. Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births) - Nigeria WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, World Bank Group, and the United Nations Population Division. A deeper research shows that hemorrhage in pregnancy and delivery is the main cause of maternal mortality in the country. Aim: To determine the causes, trends, and level of maternal mortality rate in Abakaliki, Ebonyi. The mean (SD) age and parity were 28.2 (6.2) and 3.4 (2.0), respectively. Methods Severe maternal outcomes from HDP were due to late presentations and health system challenges. In conclusion, the MMR in FMCY is higher than the national average. Lagos State University Teaching Hospital is the only state-owned tertiary center and the main referral center in Lagos State. Results: During 3 years, there were 5094317 deliveries and 941 maternal deaths (MMR of 18.5 per 1000000 live births). These days, the indicator and level of maternal mortality in any country is significant. At this rate, it will take this health facility 30 years, instead of 15 years, to achieve a 75% reduction in maternal mortality. Maternal mortality is inexcusably high in the country. To reduce maternal deaths from HDP, health system strengthening that would engender early hospital presentation and prompt treatment is recommended. Materials and methods: (WHO, 2004). Donna Murray, RN, BSN. A retrospective cohort of their sisters of reproductive age was constructed to calculate the lifetime risk of maternal mortality. The overall rate of maternal mortality in Nigeria was 22 in 2015. Key demographic indicators for Nigeria: Under-Five Mortality Rate, Population. Nigeria still has high prevalence of mortalities reflected in infants and children amongst others [5,6,7]. From 2000 to 2017, the global maternal mortality ratio declined by 38 per cent – from 342 deaths to 211 deaths per 100,000 live births, according to UN inter-agency estimates. Conclusions Despite considerable efforts to reduce the maternal mortality ratio, numerous pregnant women continue to die in many developing countries, including Nigeria. Commonly use approaches for obtaining data on levels of maternal mortality vary considerably in terms of In Sokoto, a ten year study of maternal mortality from January 1990 to December 1999 by Audu, et’al (2002) reveals that there were 197 maternal deaths and 9,158 live births. For PE and E, case fatality rates were 1.9 and 10.4%, respectively, although both conditions had a similar mortality index of 49.3%. Maternal mortality ratios (MMR) were computed using the Poisson assumption to derive confidence intervals around the … The rate of female medicolegal deaths (MLD) due to homicides and road traffic accidents (RTAs) is the highest in Africa, compared to the rest of the world, though there is scanty literature locally on this subject. The Maternal Mortality Ratio in Nigeria has steadily declined over the past 25 years. Objectives: To identify causes of maternal mortality in Japan, examine attributes of treating facilities associated with maternal mortality, and assess the preventability of such deaths. The study establishes that respondents in age group 15-19 years are 1.234 times more likely to experience complications when compared with the reference category 20-24 years. A majority of suicide victims (n = 4; 57.1%) were aged between 30 and 39 years, with an average age of 36.3. Maternal mortality has been determined unequally at different times and different regions. Lack of antenatal care and place of residence further than 5 km from the hospital were associated with maternal death. 213. Postpartum hemorrhage was the most common cause of death followed by eclampsia. This was a descriptive, retrospective review of the postmortem autopsy findings from cases of maternal death at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria over a 5-year period. The articles that met the inclusion criteria were assessed using a nine point quality score. Maternal mortality refers to the rate of women who lose their life during pregnancy or while giving birth. To assess the level of job satisfaction in Tertiary healthcare hospital employees, determine the association between socio-demographic characteristics & job satisfaction and how it influences the p, Understand the pattern of utilization of available healthcare services by expectant mothers (Eds.). This paper is to present the causes of maternal mortality that had postmortem done in our center. people (per 100 000 population) 1200 560. We conducted a study to determine the incidence and causes of maternal mortality over an 8-month period in a rural-based secondary health facility located in Jahun, northern Nigeria. In African communities especially the sub-Saharan region, the rate is quite high. (per 100 000 population) Deaths due to tuberculosis among HIV-negative. 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