[413], Water supply and sanitation in Saudi Arabia is characterized by significant investments in seawater desalination, water distribution, sewerage and wastewater treatment leading to a substantial increase in access to drinking water and sanitation over the past decades. Clash Over Khashoggi Case", "Top U.S. [361], Saudi Arabia is home to five terrestrial ecoregions: Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert, Southwestern Arabian foothills savanna, Southwestern Arabian montane woodlands, Arabian Desert, and Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert. [149] The extent of corruption has been described as systemic[162] and endemic,[163] and its existence was acknowledged[164] and defended[165] by Prince Bandar bin Sultan (a senior member of the royal family[166]) in an interview in 2001. [68] The Midianites were depicted in two major events in the Bible that recount Israel's two wars with Median, somewhere in the early 11th century BC. [148] The number of princes is estimated to be at least 7,000, with most power and influence being wielded by the 200 or so male descendants of Ibn Saud. Click here to view the 2019 Saudi International Leaderboard. (Priority is given to holders of degrees in various scientific fields,[464] and exception made for Palestinians who are excluded unless married to a Saudi national, because of Arab League instructions barring the Arab states from granting them citizenship.) [290], Jeremy Hunt, the UK Foreign Secretary, on his visit to Saudi Arabia and the UAE on 12 November 2018, is expected to raise the need for a ceasefire from all sides in the four-year long Yemen civil war. Given the substantial oil wealth, water is provided almost for free. [209], Although repeated theft can be punishable by amputation of the right hand, only one instance of judicial amputation was reported between 2007 and 2010. High taxes and a growth in unemployment have contributed to discontent, and has been reflected in a rise in civil unrest, and discontent with the royal family. [267] At least 56,000 people have been killed in armed violence in Yemen between January 2016 and October 2018. By 1984, it had become self-sufficient in wheat. Although this is normally translated as "the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia" in English,[49] it literally means "the Saudi Arab kingdom",[50] or "the Arab Saudi Kingdom". Bedouin poetry, known as nabaṭī, is still very popular. The earliest substantiated evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree is from the 15th century, in the Sufi monasteries of Arabia. The regions are further divided into 118 governorates (Arabic: محافظات‎; muhafazat, sing. These rock engravings date back more than 8,000 years, making them the earliest depictions of dogs in the world. [226], Saudi Arabia and the United States are strategic allies,[227][228] and since President Barack Obama took office in 2009, the US has sold $110 billion in arms to Saudi Arabia. [142], Women's sport is controversial due to the suppression of female participation in sport by conservative Islamic religious authorities,[542] however this restriction has eased slightly in recent years. The confidential report obtained by the media house stated that the Kingdom was assisted by Chinese geologists to produce over 90,000 tonnes of uranium from three major deposits in the centre and northwest of Saudi, near the NEOM megacity development. [125], Since 2011, Saudi Arabia has been affected by its own Arab Spring protests. The relations have the potential of evolving into a crisis at any moment. Women were not allowed to take part in the poll. [326] Germany became the first Western government to suspend future arms deal with the kingdom after Angela Merkel stated that "arms exports can't take place in the current circumstances. [citation needed], In November 2017, hunting scenes showing images of most likely domesticated dogs, resembling the Canaan dog, wearing leashes were discovered in Shuwaymis, a hilly region of northwestern Saudi Arabia. ", "These may be the world's first images of dogsand they're wearing leashes", The World around the Old Testament: The People and Places of the Ancient Near East, The political map of Arabia and the Middle East in the third century AD revealed by a Sabaean inscription, "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia", Reaching for Power: The Shi'a in the Modern Arab World, "History of Saudi Arabia. Negotiations to join had focused on the degree to which Saudi Arabia is willing to increase market access to foreign goods and in 2000, the government established the Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority to encourage foreign direct investment in the kingdom. [580][581], In September 2017, King Salman issued a decree allowing women to drive, lifting the world's only ban on women drivers. Mostly composed of water, the two bases in Gulf are two small islands, each with an airstrip and base buildings. As of 2012[update] about 80% of Saudis live in urban metropolitan areas—specifically Riyadh, Jeddah, or Dammam. [334], Saudi Arabia remains one of the very few countries in the world not to accept the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The ulema have also been a key influence in major government decisions, for example the imposition of the oil embargo in 1973 and the invitation to foreign troops to Saudi Arabia in 1990. Directed by filmmaker Rick Rowley, the documentary examines the relationship between the US and Saudi Arabia, as a backdrop to the murder of Khashoggi, along with the interactions between the Trump administration and Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman. Saudi Arabian dress strictly follows the principles of hijab (the Islamic principle of modesty, especially in dress). Saudi Arabia Golf: Saudi Arabia golf courses, ratings and reviews [47] In addition to being a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council, it is an active and founding member of the United Nations, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Arab League, OPEC and is also a major non-NATO ally. [509] And at least one religious minority, the Ahmadiyya Muslims, had its adherents deported,[510] as they are legally banned from entering the country. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. [442][443] Estimates of the Sunni population of Saudi Arabia range between 75% and 90%, with the remaining 10–25% being Shia Muslim. [610], The approach taken in the Saudi education system has been accused of encouraging Islamic terrorism, leading to reform efforts. Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and non-Gulf Egypt accuse Qatar of supporting terrorism, an allusion to Islamist groups such as the Muslim Brotherhood. [10] Wadis, non-permanent rivers, however, are very numerous. Saudi Arabia,[c] officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,[d] is a country in Western Asia constituting the vast majority of the Arabian Peninsula. [199][200] The system has also been criticized for being arcane,[201] lacking in some of the safeguards of justice, and unable to deal with the modern world. However, it attracted controversy when many of its high profile attendees, including Armie Hammer, Joan Smalls and Wilmer Valderrama, were criticized for engaging in "image rehab" for the kingdom, overlooking the continued human rights abuses in the country. It was feared that the country's Shi'ite minority in the Eastern Province (which is also the location of the oil fields) might rebel under the influence of their Iranian co-religionists. [468] In November 2013, Saudi Arabia expelled thousands of illegal Ethiopian residents from the Kingdom. Domesticated animals include the legendary Arabian horse, Arabian camel, sheep, goats, cows, donkeys, chickens etc. "[283], The US expects its Gulf allies involved in the coalition in Yemen to put in more efforts and address the rising concerns about the millions that have been pushed to the brink of famine. It led to rapid technological (but not cultural) modernization, urbanization, mass public education and the creation of new media. The information came to light in the latest round of documents released Sunday by Wikileaks. [347], In April 2020, the Saudi Supreme Court stated under a royal decree by King Salman that minors who commit crimes will no longer face the death sentence, but will be sentenced to a maximum of ten years of imprisonment in a juvenile detention facility. In the early 7th century, Muhammad united the various tribes of the peninsula and created a single Islamic religious polity. (source: Islamic Political Culture, Democracy, and Human Rights: A Comparative Study, p. 93 Daniel E. Price – 1999, Officially the Republic of China, participates as ", This page was last edited on 19 January 2021, at 23:17. [394] Matthew Simmons has suggested that Saudi Arabia is greatly exaggerating its reserves and may soon show production declines (see peak oil).[395]. [487][488] Prince Bandar bin Sultan, Saudi ambassador to the United States, stated: "The time is not far off in the Middle East when it will be literally 'God help the Shia'. Traditional music is generally associated with poetry and is sung collectively. [80], On 29 January 2011, hundreds of protesters gathered in the city of Jeddah in a rare display of criticism against the city's poor infrastructure after deadly floods swept through the city, killing 11 people. [80], In 2005, King Fahd died and was succeeded by Abdullah, who continued the policy of minimum reform and clamping down on protests. Pas dan de verwijzing naar deze doorverwijspagina aan, zodat toekomstige bezoekers direct op de juiste pagina terechtkomen. De naam Gulf en enige onderdelen van het bedrijf bleven bestaan. [337], Saudi Arabia has a "Counter-Radicalization Program" the purpose of which is to "combat the spread and appeal of extremist ideologies among the general populous (sic)" and to "instill the true values of the Islamic faith, such as tolerance and moderation. [citation needed] At the same time, the government became increasingly wasteful and extravagant. Since 2000, the government has increasingly relied on the private sector to operate water and sanitation infrastructure, beginning with desalination and wastewater treatment plants. From 2003 to 2013, "several key services" were privatized—municipal water supply, electricity, telecommunications—and parts of education and health care, traffic control and car accident reporting were also privatized. [142] Arabic coffee is a traditional beverage in Arabian cuisine. In 1972, Saudi Arabia gained a 20 percent control in Aramco, thereby decreasing US control over Saudi oil. The fertile areas are to be found in the alluvial deposits in wadis, basins, and oases. [568], A few Saudi women have risen to the top of the medical profession; for example, Dr. Ghada Al-Mutairi heads a medical research center in California[569] and Dr. Salwa Al-Hazzaa is head of the ophthalmology department at King Faisal Specialist Hospital in Riyadh and was the late King Fahad's personal ophthalmologist. [208] Studies have shown that Saudi Arabia has one of the lowest crime rates in the world although there are differing views as to whether this is attributable to the legal system or other factors such as social structures. [552][554] A royal decree passed in May 2017 allowed them to avail government services such as education and healthcare without the need of a consent of a male guardian. The disclosure raised concerns regarding Riyadh’s aggressive interest in developing atomic weapons program. Instruments include the rabābah, an instrument not unlike a three-string fiddle, and various types of percussion instruments, such as the ṭabl (drum) and the ṭār (tambourine). In 1970 telde het bedrijf 58.000 medewerkers wereldwijd en produceerde zo’n 1,3 miljoen vaten olie per … [611] The Tatweer program is reported to have a budget of approximately US$2 billion and focuses on moving teaching away from the traditional Saudi methods of memorization and rote learning towards encouraging students to analyze and problem-solve. Please click here Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 regions[368] (Arabic: مناطق إدارية‎; manatiq idāriyya, sing. Institutes devoted to Islamic studies, in particular, abound. [354] It is geographically the largest country in the Middle East and the Arabian Plate. An investigation led by The Sunday Telegraph, exposed the condition of African migrants who were detained in Saudi Arabia allegedly for containing Covid-19 in the kingdom. [387], The religious police, known as the mutawa, impose many restrictions on women in public in Saudi Arabia. [485] The official and dominant form of Islam in the kingdom—Wahhabism—arose in the central region of Najd, in the 18th century. [298], According to the Iraqi prime minister Nouri al-Maliki in March 2014, Saudi Arabia along with Qatar provided political, financial and media support to terrorists against the Iraqi government. [142] The main topographical feature is the central plateau which rises abruptly from the Red Sea and gradually descends into the Nejd and toward the Persian Gulf. The southwest province of Asir is mountainous, and contains the 3,133 m (10,279 ft) Mount Sawda, which is the highest point in the country. [10] Saudi Arabia also has one of the world's youngest populations, with approximately 50 percent of its population of 34.2 million being under 25 years old. [359], In the spring and autumn the heat is temperate, temperatures average around 29 °C (84 °F). The large expatriate communities also speak their own languages, the most numerous of which, according to 2018 data, are Tagalog (~900,000), Eastern Punjabi (~800,000), Urdu (~740,000), Egyptian Arabic (~600,000), Rohingya, and North Levantine Arabic (both ~500,000). Average summer temperatures are around 45 °C (113 °F), but can be as high as 54 °C (129 °F) at its most extreme. For the next five years, he administered the two parts of his dual kingdom as separate units. [278] Saudi Arabia and its allies have criticized Qatar-based TV channel Al Jazeera and Qatar's relations with Iran. The Al Jouf farms are located in Sakaka, a city in the north-western part of Saudi Arabia, which is a deeply-rooted in history. A support factor of this is the avail Read More ..... Construction. [155], The royal family is politically divided by factions based on clan loyalties, personal ambitions and ideological differences. For example, in Riyadh water was available only once every 2.5 days in 2011, while in Jeddah it is available only every 9 days. [205][207][210] In April 2020, Saudi Supreme Court issued a directive to eliminate the punishment of flogging from the Saudi court system, and it is to be replaced by imprisonment or fines. Women do not have equal rights to men in the kingdom; the U.S. State Department considers Saudi Arabian government's discrimination against women a "significant problem" in Saudi Arabia and notes that women have few political rights due to the government's discriminatory policies. The governorates are further subdivided into sub-governorates (Arabic: مراكز‎; marakiz, sing. [391] Increases in oil prices in the early 2000s helped boost per capita GDP to $17,000 in 2007 dollars (about $7,400 adjusted for inflation),[392] but have declined since oil price drop in mid-2014. [citation needed], Royal decrees are the other main source of law; but are referred to as regulations rather than laws because they are subordinate to the Sharia. In 2016, the General Entertainment Authority was formed to oversee the expansion of the Saudi entertainment sector. [3][565], Obesity is a problem among middle and upper class Saudis who have domestic servants to do traditional work but, until 2018, were forbidden to drive and so are limited in their ability to leave their home. However, the private sector still remains hugely dominated by foreigners. [550], Formula One announced to hold its 2021 race in Saudi Arabia for the next season. Thus the idea that colonists from Saudi Arabia had emigrated to southern Mesopotamia and founded the region's first sedentary culture was abandoned. [119] However, Saudi Arabia condemned the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990 and asked the US to intervene. 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