After being sent to the Moon by the Saturn V's third stage, the astronauts separated the spacecraft from it and traveled for three days until they entered lunar orbit. Eagle's ascent stage was jettisoned into lunar orbit at 23:41. The location is uncertain because Eagle ascent stage was not tracked after it was jettisoned, and the lunar gravity field is sufficiently non-uniform to make the orbit of the spacecraft unpredictable after a short time. After the LM was extracted, the combined spacecraft headed for the Moon, while the rocket stage flew on a trajectory past the Moon. You got a bunch of guys about to turn blue. Apollo 11 was the fifth crewed mission of NASA’s ambitious Apollo program. This was to guarantee there would be some lunar soil brought back in case an emergency required the astronauts to abandon the EVA and return to the LM. Apollo 11 had to take of from the launch pad at a very good speed, so that it could beat gravity. [3] There were several differences between Eagle and Apollo 10's LM-4 Snoopy; Eagle had a VHF radio antenna to facilitate communication with the astronauts during their EVA on the lunar surface; a lighter ascent engine; more thermal protection on the landing gear; and a package of scientific experiments known as the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP). [129] Duke mispronounced his reply as he expressed the relief at Mission Control: "Roger, Twan—Tranquility, we copy you on the ground. We're breathing again. Armstrong became the first person to step onto the lunar surface six hours and 39 minutes later on July 21 at 02:56 UTC; Aldrin joined him 19 minutes later. Doctors diagnosed the problem as a bony growth between his fifth and sixth vertebrae, requiring surgery. [109] It lay about 25 kilometers (16 mi) southeast of the Surveyor 5 landing site, and 68 kilometers (42 mi) southwest of Ranger 8's crash site. Aldrin was an elder at the Webster Presbyterian Church, and his communion kit was prepared by the pastor of the church, Dean Woodruff. It demonstrated that the Soviet Union had the capability to deliver nuclear weapons over intercontinental distances, and challenged American claims of military, economic and technological superiority. [56], During Projects Mercury and Gemini, each mission had a prime and a backup crew. The Nuffield Radio Astronomy Laboratories radio telescope in England recorded transmissions from Luna 15 during its descent, and these were released in July 2009 for the 40th anniversary of Apollo 11. [132] The schedule for the mission called for the astronauts to follow the landing with a five-hour sleep period, but they chose to begin preparations for the EVA early, thinking they would be unable to sleep. Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation may never come again. The crew tried a simulation in which Aldrin left the spacecraft first, but he damaged the simulator while attempting to egress. When did Apollo 11 launch? "[172][173], The responsibility for this flight lies first with history and with the giants of science who have preceded this effort; next with the American people, who have, through their will, indicated their desire; next with four administrations and their Congresses, for implementing that will; and then, with the agency and industry teams that built our spacecraft, the Saturn, the Columbia, the Eagle, and the little EMU, the spacesuit and backpack that was our small spacecraft out on the lunar surface. The support crew maintained the flight plan, checklists and mission ground rules, and ensured the prime and backup crews were apprised of changes. Details Related. Columbia was taken to Ford Island for deactivation, and its pyrotechnics made safe. [77], Neil Armstrong's LM PPK contained a piece of wood from the Wright brothers' 1903 Wright Flyer's left propeller and a piece of fabric from its wing,[78] along with a diamond-studded astronaut pin originally given to Slayton by the widows of the Apollo 1 crew. [168], One of Collins' first tasks was to identify the lunar module on the ground. Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that first landed humans on the Moon. Thanks for reading this article. [34] This design meant the spacecraft could be launched by a single Saturn V rocket that was then under development. Ken Mattingly was moved from the support crew into parallel training with Anders as backup CMP in case Apollo 11 was delayed past its intended July launch date, at which point Anders would be unavailable. For the next couple of orbits, he described his time on the back side of the Moon as "relaxing". Over 100 research laboratories around the world conduct studies of the samples, and approximately 500 samples are prepared and sent to investigators every year. ACA—out of detent." [10] Collins, alone aboard Columbia, inspected Eagle as it pirouetted before him to ensure the craft was not damaged, and that the landing gear was correctly deployed. Personally, in reflecting on the events of the past several days, a verse from Psalms comes to mind. About two-thirds were fr… [3] In the early hours of the morning, the fuel tanks of the S-II and S-IVB stages were filled with liquid hydrogen. [94] Chris Kraft revealed in his 2001 autobiography that a meeting occurred between Gilruth, Slayton, Low, and himself to make sure Aldrin would not be the first to walk on the Moon. Why choose this as our goal? [104] About two-thirds were from the United States; the rest came from 55 other countries. Congress—OpenCongress", "Moon landings: British scientists salute space heroes", 114–282: Apollo 11 50th Anniversary Commemorative Coin Act (text), "Apollo 11 50th Anniversary Commemorative Coin Program", "Google (and Apollo 11's Michael Collins) Celebrate Moon Landing's 50th with EPIC Google Doodle", "Apollo 11 astronauts reunite on 50th anniversary of moonshot", "Trump, Apollo 11 astronauts discuss merits of going to moon before Mars", "The moon shoot: film of Apollo mission on show again after 35 years in the can", "On Eagle's Wings: The Parkes Observatory's Support of the Apollo 11 Mission", The Eagle Has Landed: The Flight of Apollo 11, Apollo 11: As They Photographed It (Augmented Reality), Commercial Orbital Transportation Services, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Apollo_11&oldid=998530466, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2018, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Geologist who trained astronauts in field geology. While this was enough for mission planners to make their decision, Aldrin and Armstrong were left in the dark on the decision until late spring. [6] Just before the Apollo 12 flight, it was noted that Eagle was still likely to be orbiting the Moon. It was the person who closed the hatch of Apollo 11. Aldrin shoveled 6 kilograms (13 lb) of soil into the box of rocks in order to pack them in tightly. After one and a half orbits, a second ignition of the S-IVB engine pushed the spacecraft onto its trajectory toward the Moon with the trans-lunar injection (TLI) burn at 16:22:13 UTC. Command module pilot Michael Collins flew the Command Module Columbia alone in lunar orbit while they were on the Moon's surface. Seven minutes later Columbia struck the water forcefully 2,660 km (1,440 nmi) east of Wake Island, 380 km (210 nmi) south of Johnston Atoll, and 24 km (13 nmi) from Hornet,[6][182] at 13°19′N 169°9′W / 13.317°N 169.150°W / 13.317; -169.150. From there they were flown to the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, where they were transferred into the large, 58-room Lunar Receiving Laboratory. [210] One possible explanation was the shift in complexity. Learn more about the history of the Apollo program in this article. [266], On July 19, 2019, the Google Doodle paid tribute to the Apollo 11 Moon Landing, complete with a link to an animated YouTube video with voiceover by astronaut Michael Collins. read more An estimated one million spectators watched the launch of Apollo 11 from the highways and beaches in the vicinity of the launch site. The inscription read: Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon July 1969, A. D. We came in peace for all mankind. [55] Armstrong did not agree with the assessment, and said "... all the crews I was on worked very well together. For safekeeping, there is also a smaller collection stored at White Sands Test Facility near Las Cruces, New Mexico. The launch was televised live in 33 countries, with an estimated 25 million viewers in the United States alone. In July 1962 NASA head James Webb announced that lunar orbit rendezvous would be used[32][33] and that the Apollo spacecraft would have three major parts: a command module (CM) with a cabin for the three astronauts, and the only part that returned to Earth; a service module (SM), which supported the command module with propulsion, electrical power, oxygen, and water; and a lunar module (LM) that had two stages—a descent stage for landing on the Moon, and an ascent stage to place the astronauts back into lunar orbit. Each time he passed over the suspected lunar landing site, he tried in vain to find the module. Most of the rocks are stored in nitrogen to keep them free of moisture. Armstrong acknowledged: "Out of detent. ", "Gil Scott-Heron's Poem, 'Whitey on the Moon, "Where No Man Has Gone Before: A History of Apollo Lunar Exploration Missions", "Russians Finally Admit They Lost Race to Moon", "The Moon Landing through Soviet Eyes: A Q&A with Sergei Khrushchev, son of former premier Nikita Khrushchev", Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, "Neil Armstrong's sons help open exhibit of father's spacecraft in Ohio", "Neil Armstrong's Apollo 11 spacesuit unveiled at Smithsonian", "National Air and Space Museum Moves Apollo Artifact to Future Home", "Amazon boss Jeff Bezos 'finds Apollo 11 Moon engines, "Bezos Expeditions retrieves and identifies Apollo 11 engine #5, NASA confirms identity", "Apollo 11 SIVB NSSDCA/COSPAR ID: 1969-059B", "Where today are the Apollo 11 goodwill lunar sample displays? Time: GMT. LC-39 is one of several launch sites that share the radar and tracking services of the Eastern Test Range. Aldrin remarked that moving from sunlight into Eagle's shadow produced no temperature change inside the suit, but the helmet was warmer in sunlight, so he felt cooler in shadow. [237] His team brought parts of two of the five engines to the surface. They then donned their space suits and began breathing pure oxygen. "[126], ACA was the Attitude Control Assembly—the LM's control stick. The massive, 363-feet tall Saturn V rocket launches on the Apollo 11 mission from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center, at 9:32 a.m. EDT. [40] In October 1968, Apollo 7 evaluated the command module in Earth orbit,[41] and in December Apollo 8 tested it in lunar orbit. [28] When Kennedy met with Nikita Khrushchev, the Premier of the Soviet Union in June 1961, he proposed making the Moon landing a joint project, but Khrushchev did not take up the offer. The first Moon landing mission took place on July 16, 1969. [42] In March 1969, Apollo 9 put the lunar module through its paces in Earth orbit,[43] and in May Apollo 10 conducted a "dress rehearsal" in lunar orbit. Who was the last person seen by Apollo 11 crew before launch? It was then attached to the MQF with a flexible tunnel, allowing the lunar samples, film, data tapes and other items to be removed. A crewed mission to the Moon would serve this purpose. Site 2 was chosen. The astronauts were winched on board the recovery helicopter. The PLSS backpack created a tendency to tip backward, but neither astronaut had serious problems maintaining balance. We choose to go to the Moon! [111][112] Armstrong exclaimed: "The Eagle has wings! The original requirement that the site be free of craters had to be relaxed, as no such site was found. Two of the E-1s were designated as "air boss" while the third acted as a communications relay aircraft. The Apollo 11 spacecraft could be divided into three important parts – the command module (CM), the lunar module (LM) and the service module (SM). It contains much historical and technical information. The Apollo spacecraft had three parts: a command module (CM) with a cabin for the three astronauts, the only part that returned to Earth; a service module (SM), which supported the command module with propulsion, electrical power, oxygen, and water; and a lunar module (LM) that had two stages—a descent stage for landing on the Moon and an ascent stage to place the astronauts back into lunar orbit. [186] 82 °F (28 °C) with 6 feet (1.8 m) seas and winds at 17 knots (31 km/h; 20 mph) from the east were reported under broken clouds at 1,500 feet (460 m) with visibility of 10 nautical miles (19 km; 12 mi) at the recovery site. After cutting the umbilicals between the two stages, the Ascent Stage engine was ignited. By 1973, 59 percent of those polled favored cutting spending on space exploration. On June 9, 2002, the Advanced Land Imager on NASA’s Earth Observing-1 satellite captured this true-color image of launch pad 39A and neighboring pad 39B. The software's action, in this case, was to eliminate lower priority tasks and re-establish the more important ones. Engine arm—off. Apollo 11 was launched by a Saturn V rocket from Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, Florida, on July 16 at 13:32 UTC, and it was the fifth crewed mission of NASA's Apollo program. Having the rendezvous radar on (so it was warmed up in case of an emergency landing abort) should have been irrelevant to the computer, but an electrical phasing mismatch between two parts of the rendezvous radar system could cause the stationary antenna to appear to the computer as dithering back and forth between two positions, depending upon how the hardware randomly powered up. [25], In spite of that, the proposed program faced the opposition of many Americans and was dubbed a "moondoggle" by Norbert Wiener, a mathematician at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. After three weeks in confinement (first in the Apollo spacecraft, then in their trailer on Hornet, and finally in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory), the astronauts were given a clean bill of health. [206] The crew toured from September 29 to November 5. Some large rocks jutted out of the dust cloud, and Armstrong focused on them during his descent so he could determine the spacecraft's speed. [19] Nearly a month later, on May 5, 1961, Alan Shepard became the first American in space, completing a 15-minute suborbital journey. 16/07/2019 9064 views 123 likes 425683 ID. [98] Fueling was completed by three hours before launch. For other uses, see. [138][12], Apollo 11 used slow-scan television (TV) incompatible with broadcast TV, so it was displayed on a special monitor, and a conventional TV camera viewed this monitor, significantly reducing the quality of the picture. [159], Aldrin entered Eagle first. Drastic cuts, warned Caspar Weinberger, the deputy director of the Office of Management and Budget, might send a signal that "our best years are behind us". [46], The initial crew assignment of Commander Neil Armstrong, Command Module Pilot (CMP) Jim Lovell, and Lunar Module Pilot (LMP) Buzz Aldrin on the backup crew for Apollo 9 was officially announced on November 20, 1967. A poem by Gil Scott-Heron called "Whitey on the Moon" illustrated the racial inequality in the United States that was highlighted by the Space Race. [39], Project Apollo was abruptly halted by the Apollo 1 fire on January 27, 1967, in which astronauts Gus Grissom, Ed White, and Roger B. Chaffee died, and the subsequent investigation. [80] [155] In a 2010 interview, Armstrong explained that NASA limited the first moonwalk's time and distance because there was no empirical proof of how much cooling water the astronauts' PLSS backpacks would consume to handle their body heat generation while working on the Moon. [133], Preparations for Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin to walk on the Moon began at 23:43. The sunlight in the image was coming from the wrong direction; the shadow should have been in the lower part of the Earth instead of the left. [204] The flag of American Samoa on Apollo 11 is on display at the Jean P. Haydon Museum in Pago Pago, the capital of American Samoa. [164] The disk also carries a listing of the leadership of the US Congress, a listing of members of the four committees of the House and Senate responsible for the NASA legislation, and the names of NASA's past and then-current top management. I'm talking to you by telephone from the Oval Room at the White House. [201][203], The three astronauts spoke before a joint session of Congress on September 16, 1969. Armstrong then jumped onto the ladder's third rung, and climbed into the LM. The Apollo 1 Launch Pad Accident Apollo 1 27 January 1967 Tragic Loss of Three Apollo Astronauts. Launched 11 October 1968 First crewed Apollo flight Splashdown 22 October 1968 Apollo 9 Launched 03 March 1969 First crewed Lunar Module test Splashdown 13 March 1969. Armstrong's first step onto the lunar surface was broadcast on live TV to a worldwide audience. The crew were also warned they would not be in a full-lift (heads-down) attitude when they entered P67. This was later found to be the result of greater propellant 'slosh' than expected, uncovering a fuel sensor. We propose to accelerate the development of the appropriate lunar space craft. "[172], This has been far more than three men on a mission to the Moon; more, still, than the efforts of a government and industry team; more, even, than the efforts of one nation. The program alarms indicated "executive overflows", meaning the guidance computer could not complete all its tasks in real time and had to postpone some of them. [85][86], During the first press conference after the Apollo 11 crew was announced, the first question was, "Which one of you gentlemen will be the first man to step onto the lunar surface? About 30 minutes later, with Collins in the left seat and at the controls, the transposition, docking, and extraction maneuver was performed. [14] On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite. [167], During his day flying solo around the Moon, Collins never felt lonely. Missions are ordered by launch date. [168] In the 48 minutes of each orbit when he was out of radio contact with the Earth while Columbia passed round the far side of the Moon, the feeling he reported was not fear or loneliness, but rather "awareness, anticipation, satisfaction, confidence, almost exultation". On July 16, 1969, the Apollo 11 mission was launched from Kennedy Space Center in Florida with the help of a Saturn V rocket. They spent about two and a quarter hours together outside the spacecraft, and they collected 47.5 pounds (21.5 kg) of lunar material to bring back to Earth. He then folded the bag and tucked it into a pocket on his right thigh. Aldrin attempted to persuade other lunar module pilots he should be first, but they responded cynically about what they perceived as a lobbying campaign. Kennedy. [187] Reconnaissance aircraft flying to the original splashdown location reported the conditions Brandli and Houston had predicted. I just can't tell you how proud we all are of what you have done. [87], One of the first versions of the egress checklist had the lunar module pilot exit the spacecraft before the commander, which matched what had been done on Gemini missions,[89] where the commander had never performed the spacewalk. [6] They returned to Earth and splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on July 24 after more than eight days in space. While still on the ladder, Armstrong uncovered a plaque mounted on the LM descent stage bearing two drawings of Earth (of the Western and Eastern Hemispheres), an inscription, and signatures of the astronauts and President Nixon. [140] Copies of this video in broadcast format were saved and are widely available, but recordings of the original slow scan source transmission from the lunar surface were likely destroyed during routine magnetic tape re-use at NASA.[139]. You have already liked this page, you can only like it once! [69] When the Eisenhower dollar coin was released in 1971, the patch design provided the eagle for its reverse side. During descent, a malfunction caused Luna 15 to crash in Mare Crisium about two hours before Armstrong and Aldrin took off from the Moon's surface to begin their voyage home. Actually, the computer was programmed to do more than recognize error conditions. Apollo 11. To those people tonight, we give a special thank you, and to all the other people that are listening and watching tonight, God bless you. [51], Deke Slayton gave Armstrong the option to replace Aldrin with Lovell, since some thought Aldrin was difficult to work with. A smaller pad, also designated 39C, was constructed from January to June 2015, to provide small-lift launch vehicles. A VAB or Vehicle Assembly Building. [157] Three new minerals were discovered in the rock samples collected by the astronauts: armalcolite, tranquillityite, and pyroxferroite. [35], Technologies and techniques required for Apollo were developed by Project Gemini. [125] Aldrin immediately said "Okay, engine stop. Date: Terminal countdown started.-028:00:00: 21:00:00: 14 Jul 1969: Scheduled 11-hour hold at T-9 hours.-009:00:00 "[87][88] Slayton told the reporter it had not been decided, and Armstrong added that it was "not based on individual desire". Launch Complex 39 will continue to help groundbreaking journeys in the human exploration of space well into the future, more than 51 years after its baptism-by-fire in the first Saturn V rocket launch in 1967. [58], The flight directors for this mission were:[60][61][62][63][64][65], Other key personnel who played important roles in the Apollo 11 mission include the following. All this is possible only through the blood, sweat, and tears of a number of people ... All you see is the three of us, but beneath the surface are thousands and thousands of others, and to all of those, I would like to say, "Thank you very much. [3], The S-IVB third stage of Saturn V AS-506 had arrived on January 18, followed by the S-II second stage on February 6, S-IC first stage on February 20, and the Saturn V Instrument Unit on February 27. [210] The success of Apollo 11 demonstrated the United States' technological superiority;[210] and with the success of Apollo 11, America had won the Space Race. [250], On July 15, 2009, Life.com released a photo gallery of previously unpublished photos of the astronauts taken by Life photographer Ralph Morse prior to the Apollo 11 launch. On July 16, 1969, the huge, 363-feet tall Saturn V rocket launches on the Apollo 11 mission from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center, at 9:32 a.m. EDT. [3] At 13.2 seconds into the flight, the launch vehicle began to roll into its flight azimuth of 72.058°. Information available to the crew and mission controllers during the landing showed the LM had enough fuel for another 25 seconds of powered flight before an abort without touchdown would have become unsafe,[7][127] but post-mission analysis showed that the real figure was probably closer to 50 seconds. The possibility of bringing back pathogens from the lunar surface was considered remote, but NASA took precautions at the recovery site. [59] For Apollo 11, the CAPCOMs were: Charles Duke, Ronald Evans, Bruce McCandless II, James Lovell, William Anders, Ken Mattingly, Fred Haise, Don L. Lind, Owen K. Garriott and Harrison Schmitt. [5] At 17:44:00 Eagle separated from Columbia. Loose equipment from the spacecraft remained in isolation until the lunar samples were released for study. [83] Five sites were considered: Sites 1 and 2 were in the Sea of Tranquility (Mare Tranquillitatis); Site 3 was in the Central Bay (Sinus Medii); and Sites 4 and 5 were in the Ocean of Storms (Oceanus Procellarum). [269][270], In some of the following sources, times are shown in the format hours:minutes:seconds (e.g. The second stage engines then cut off and separated at about 9 minutes and 8 seconds, allowing the first ignition of the S-IVB engine a few seconds later. Apollo, Moon-landing project conducted by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the 1960s and ’70s. A complete set of recovery programs was incorporated into the software. Two and a half hours later, at 17:54:00 UTC, they lifted off in Eagle's ascent stage to rejoin Collins aboard Columbia in lunar orbit. [191], The divers then passed biological isolation garments (BIGs) to the astronauts, and assisted them into the life raft. [102] The closeout crew sealed the hatch, and the cabin was purged and pressurized. [5][108] In the thirty orbits that followed, the crew saw passing views of their landing site in the southern Sea of Tranquility about 12 miles (19 km) southwest of the crater Sabine D. The site was selected in part because it had been characterized as relatively flat and smooth by the automated Ranger 8 and Surveyor 5 landers and the Lunar Orbiter mapping spacecraft, and because it was unlikely to present major landing or EVA challenges. [10] Armstrong initially had some difficulties squeezing through the hatch with his portable life support system (PLSS). "[a][143][144], Armstrong intended to say "That's one small step for a man", but the word "a" is not audible in the transmission, and thus was not initially reported by most observers of the live broadcast. Michael Collins, the CMP on the Apollo 8 crew, began experiencing trouble with his legs. Onboard the Apollo 11 spacecraft are astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot. The massive, 363-feet tall Saturn V rocket launches on the Apollo 11 mission from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center, at 9:32 a.m. EDT. [251] From July 16 to 24, 2009, NASA streamed the original mission audio on its website in real time 40 years to the minute after the events occurred. Apollo 11 was the fifth manned mission of NASA’s Apollo program and carried Buzz Aldrin, Neil Armstrong, and Michael Collins in its crew. To give Collins an idea where to look, Mission Control radioed that they believed the lunar module landed about 4 miles (6.4 km) off target. A new location was selected 215 nautical miles (398 km) northeast. The raft containing decontamination materials was intentionally sunk. [54] Aldrin and Collins described the crew as "amiable strangers". We propose additional funds for other engine development and for unmanned explorations—explorations which are particularly important for one purpose which this nation will never overlook: the survival of the man who first makes this daring flight. Based on the normal crew rotation scheme, Armstrong was then expected to command Apollo 11. Eagle was traveling too fast. Climbing down the nine-rung ladder, Armstrong pulled a D-ring to deploy the modular equipment stowage assembly (MESA) folded against Eagle's side and activate the TV camera. The agency recently finished the modification of the Vehicle Assembly Building, launch platforms, and the SLS pad. [158], Mission Control used a coded phrase to warn Armstrong his metabolic rates were high, and that he should slow down. With some difficulty the astronauts lifted film and two sample boxes containing 21.55 kilograms (47.5 lb) of lunar surface material to the LM hatch using a flat cable pulley device called the Lunar Equipment Conveyor (LEC). The bag contained a forgotten camera that had been used to capture images of the first Moon landing. When later asked about his quote, Armstrong said he believed he said "for a man", and subsequent printed versions of the quote included the "a" in square brackets. The Soviet government limited the release of information about the lunar landing, which affected the reaction. "When I consider the heavens, the work of Thy fingers, the Moon and the stars, which Thou hast ordained; What is man that Thou art mindful of him? [247] In 2015, after Armstrong died in 2012, his widow contacted the National Air and Space Museum to inform them she had found a white cloth bag in one of Armstrong's closets. Armstrong's unrehearsed change of call sign from "Eagle" to "Tranquility Base" emphasized to listeners that landing was complete and successful. [169], Just before he reached the dark side on the third orbit, Mission Control informed Collins there was a problem with the temperature of the coolant. Thanks a lot."[7][130]. [81] The landing site had to be close to the lunar equator to minimize the amount of propellant required, clear of obstacles to minimize maneuvering, and flat to simplify the task of the landing radar. And this certainly has to be the most historic telephone call ever made from the White House. [139] The signal was received at Goldstone in the United States, but with better fidelity by Honeysuckle Creek Tracking Station near Canberra in Australia. [15] This precipitated the Sputnik crisis, and triggered the Space Race. [44], The Soviet Union competed with the US in the Space Race, but its early lead was lost through repeated failures in development of the N1 launcher, which was comparable to the Saturn V.[45] The Soviets tried to beat the US to return lunar material to the Earth by means of uncrewed probes. [211][215][216] The poem starts with: A rat done bit my sister Nell. And Whitey 's on the Moon [ 222 ] the closeout crew then left the spacecraft remained in isolation the! ] in Collins ' first tasks was to have him leave the spacecraft 's.... Indirectly, using special tools crew had none of the MSC felt the talons of Presidential. They would fly to Hornet in Marine one for a day before declining be still... Platforms between the two docked at 21:35 Wilson, a news Facility famous for the return flight B. Johnson his! Crawlerway used by crawler-transporters to carry mobile launcher platforms between the Vehicle Assembly Building and the fourth carried decontamination! 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