Acute respiratory infections, notably pneumonia, and diarrhoeal diseases are the first and second leading causes of death among young children, respectively. Grosse, Scott D. and Roy, Kakoli (2008), 'Long-term economic effect of early childhood nutrition', The Lancet, 371 (9610), In developed countries until the mid-1930s, maternal mortality rates were high. Early malnutrition is also linked to poor cognitive functioning and learning capacity, which in the longer term leads to lower labour productivity, and poverty (Grosse and Roy 2008; Hoddinott et al. A number of interventions aim at improving the allocation of resources and/or infrastructure. Each year, diarrhea kills 760,000 children under the age of 5. In our paper we mostly focus on non-clinical interventions although both types of policies, clinical and non-clinical should be seen as an integral part of public health strategies to tackle preventable and treatable childhood diseases in developing countries. World Health Organization (2003), 'Treatment of diarrhoea: a manual for physicians and other senior health workers', Life Expectancy: Over the years, life expectancy has increased in developing countries due to … Pneumonia and diarrhoea alone lead to 1.6 and 1.3 million child deaths per year respectively, amounting to almost 3 million deaths in total. Infant mortality is an indicator of how developed a … Figure 3: Clinical and non-clinical interventions against childhood diseases in developing countries. In order to reduce Child Mortality, Maternal Mortality rates also have to decrease. Much of the reduction in child mortality rates have been attributed to, and analysed in the context of, clinical interventions, particularty those devoted to increase the distribution of rotavirus vaccines, zinc supplements and oral rehydration salts solutions to prevent and treat diahorrea, and antibiotics and immunization against haemophilus influenza type B, pneumococcus, measles and whooping cough (pertussis) to treat and prevent pneumonia. Assessing ‘what works’ in tackling the main cause of child morbidity and mortality is thus fundamental for effective policy actions. About 15 percent of child mortality deaths are caused by pneumonia. It was certainly true that before 1937—and probably thereafter—malnutrition associated with poverty was a surprisingly minor determinant of levels of maternal mortality. Zimbabweis one of the many countries that for years existed under the governance of the British monarch and Union Jack. Many of the diseases that kill children younger than 5-years-old are caused by lack of access to healthcare facilities, improper hygiene and sanitation, unclean water and not enough food, and low levels of education and information. There are significant racial disparities in infant mortality rates in the United States. New Collaboration Aims to Reduce Infant Mortality in Developing Countries by Making Life-Saving Antiseptic More Widely Available. Diarrhoeal Disease Those who are malnourished have weaker immune systems and are therefore at a higher risk of dying from pneumonia. Since diarrhea leads to malnourishment, those who are already weakened by the disease are likely to contract it again. 1. 1988 Dec;12(2):65-95. [Article in French] Kuate Defo B. PIP: This study identifies the causes of infant and child mortality (EMIJ) in Yaounde, Cameroon based on findings from The Institute de Formation et de Recherche Demographique (IFORD) survey that took place from January 1, 1978 to January 31, 1980. These estimates are shown in the visualisation below.In 1960 child mortality was still 18.5%. The majority of these deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, where the child mortality rate is 175 per 1000 (compared to 6 per 1000 in industrialized countries). In developing countries, stillbirths occur at a rate of about 13 per 1,000 births and early infant deaths at a rate of nine per 1,000 live births—even when women receive antenatal care and deliver in hospitals prepared to handle obstetrical and newborn complications. In many Low birth weight makes up 60–80% of the infant mortality rate in developing countries. About 15 percent of child mortality deaths are caused by pneumonia. Media Contact: Anne Bell (301) 998-6785 adb@usp.org. Diarrhoeal Disease The issue of maternal death in developing countries is an often unaddressed and urgent need.           Guatemalan adults', The Lancet, 371 (9610), 411-16. Hoddinott, John, et al. So, what works against preventable and treatable childhood diseases? More than a third of child mortality deaths occur in the first month of life and are related to pre-term birth, birth asphyxia (suffocation), and infections. The top three causes of child mortality are: 1. The high number of maternal deaths in some areas of the world reflects inequities in access to health services, and highlights the gap between rich and poor. It can be treated with rehydration zinc supplements. These include include sanitation and hospital upgrades, and improving water supply, its distribution, and/or quality. Acute respiratory infections, notably pneumonia, and diarrhoeal diseases are the first and second leading causes of death among young children… The fact that a large proportion of child deaths are caused by preventable and treatable infectious diseases is symptomatic of dysfunctional health systems in the developing world. I recently conducted with Maureen Seguin what  is, to our knowledge, the first systematic review on non-clinical non-clinical interventions for preventable and treatable childhood diseases in developing countries. While the level of infant mortality dropped in developing countries from 106 per 1000 live births in 1970-75 to 91 by 1980-85, the UN Population Division still estimates that the infant mortality rate in those countries will be close to 60/1000 live births in the year 2000.           (Geneva: World Health Organization). 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