The penetration of Christianity into Scandinavia led to serious conflict dividing Norway for almost a century.. He would also wear all of his badges from his long military and mercenary career. The motives driving the Viking expansion are a topic of much debate in Nordic history. properties), and the stallari or marshal - the king's deputy in the field. Robert Wernick. The most important primary sources for information on the Vikings are different sorts of contemporary evidence from Scandinavia and the various regions in which the Vikings were active. The ships were scuttled there in the 11th century to block a navigation channel, thus protecting the city, which was then the Danish capital, from seaborne assault. A hirðman paid homage to the king and swore loyalty to him and Among them are around 25 Ingvar runestones in the Mälardalen district of Sweden, erected to commemorate members of a disastrous expedition into present-day Russia in the early 11th century. Genetic studies in the British Isles of the Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a1, seen also across Scandinavia, have demonstrated that the Vikings settled in Britain and Ireland as well as raiding there. Vikings War of Clans; Vikings: War of Clans. During the 20th century, the meaning of the term was expanded to refer not only to seaborne raiders from Scandinavia, but secondarily to any Scandinavian who lived during the period from the late 8th to the mid-11th centuries, or more loosely from about 700 to as late as about 1100. , The form also occurs as a personal name on some Swedish rune stones. and shield for each member, one mail shirt per ship, and one bow and arrows All free men in the village took part in final decisions at a "Thing", or a meeting. They acted as a kind of police force, doing  Viking navigators opened the road to new lands to the north, west and east, resulting in the foundation of independent settlements in the Shetland, Orkney, and Faroe Islands; Iceland; Greenland; and L'Anse aux Meadows, a short-lived settlement in Newfoundland, circa 1000. Viking women liked to share in the conquest as well! The king appointed his/her staff and made laws that were to be followed by the rest of the people of the kingdom. The period from the earliest recorded raids in the 790s until the Norman conquest of England in 1066 is commonly known as the Viking Age of Scandinavian history. It was not until 1103, however, that the first archbishopric was founded in Scandinavia, at Lund, Scania, Denmark (as of then). The assimilation of the nascent Scandinavian kingdoms into the cultural mainstream of European Christendom altered the aspirations of Scandinavian rulers and of those Scandinavians able to travel overseas and changed their relations with their neighbours. 5th – 8th centuries (Fayard, 2005), "Franques Royal Annals" cited in Peter Sawyer, "The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings", 2001, p. 20, Dictionnaire d'histoire de France – Perrin – Alain Decaux and André Castelot – 1981 – pages 184/185 ISBN 2-7242-3080-9, "the Vikings" R.Boyer history, myths, dictionary, Robert Laffont several 2008, p96 ISBN 978-2-221-10631-0, "History of the Kings of Norway" by Snorri Sturlusson translated by Professor of History François-Xavier Dillmann, Gallimard ISBN 2-07-073211-8 pages 15,16,18,24,33,34,38, Gareth Williams, 'Kingship, Christianity and coinage: monetary and political perspectives on silver economy in the Viking Age', in, The Northern Crusades: Second Edition by Eric Christiansen; ISBN 0-14-026653-4, Howard D. 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