Because of its international status, there was a desire to regulate the French language. However, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. During the reign of Philip of Valois, the French monarchy reached the height of its medieval power. The leading French banks are BNP Paribas and the Crédit Agricole, ranking as the world's first and sixth largest banks in 2010[194] (by assets), while the Société Générale group was ranked the world's eighth largest in 2009. The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, ranked France's education as about the OECD average in 2015. [258] That left South Vietnam standing alone. [17], Hugh's son—Robert the Pious—was crowned King of the Franks before Capet's demise. Full citizenship rights – assimilation – were offered. [288], Traditional interpretations say these race riots were spurred by radical Muslims or unemployed youth. France attacked the Dutch Republic and was joined by England in this conflict. The country's eighteen integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.41 million (as of December 2020[update]). When a mob from Paris attacked the royal palace at Versailles in October 1789 seeking redress for their severe poverty, the royal family was forced to move to the Tuileries Palace in Paris. It called for the destruction of aristocratic privileges and proclaimed freedom and equal rights for all men, as well as access to public office based on talent rather than birth. Churchill, caught between the U.S. and de Gaulle, tried to find a compromise.[236][237]. Philip II spent an important part of his reign fighting the so-called Angevin Empire, which was probably the greatest threat to the King of France since the rise of the Capetian dynasty. The Sixth Coalition was formed under British leadership. An interim Provisional Government of the French Republic was quickly put into place by de Gaulle. celebrate 14 July each year as 'Bastille day' or, as the French say: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, attacked the royal palace at Versailles in October 1789, Verdun being captured by the Prussian enemy, won a battle against Prussian troops near Valmy, tried, convicted, and guillotined in January 1793, Revolt of Lyon against the National Convention, law enacted on 10 June 1794 (22 Prairial II), victories over Austrian and British troops in May and June 1794, A decree was adopted to arrest Robespierre, France conquered Rhineland, Belgium and much of Italy, and unsuccessfully attacked Wales. Clovis regained the southwest from the Visigoths, was baptized in 508, and made himself master of what is now western Germany. The executive branch itself has two leaders. [144] Although a new electoral law was passed that respected the principle of universal (male) suffrage, the stricter residential requirement of the new law actually had the effect of disenfranchising 3,000,000 of 10,000,000 voters.[145]. The latter, in particular, held numerous properties throughout France and by the 13th century were the principal bankers for the French crown, until Philip IV annihilated the order in 1307. In return French negotiator Jean Monnet set out the French five-year plan for recovery and development. Thus was established feudalism in France. Conservative Nicolas Sarkozy was elected and took office on 16 May 2007. In 843, under the Treaty of Verdun, the empire was divided between Louis' three sons, with East Francia going to Louis the German, Middle Francia to Lothair I, and West Francia to Charles the Bald. Including metropolitan France, the total area of land under French sovereignty almost reached 13 million square kilometers in the 1920s and 1930s, 8.6% of the world's land. During the period known as the Ancien Régime, France transformed into a centralized absolute monarchy. [178], The Suez Canal, initially built by the French, became a joint British-French project in 1875, as both saw it as vital to maintaining their influence and empires in Asia. The Revolution failed to destroy the Catholic Church, and Napoleon's concordat of 1801 restored its status. Gaul was then a prosperous country, of which the southernmost part was heavily subject to Greek and Roman cultural and economic influences. [86], Prussia joined Britain and Russia, thus forming the Fourth Coalition. [59], In response to the threat of war of August 1791 from Austria and Prussia, leaders of the Assembly saw such a war as a means to strengthen support for their revolutionary government, and the French people as well as the Assembly thought that they would win a war against Austria and Prussia. [29] France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux[29] (approximately 18,000 BC). These massifs delineate several sedimentary basins such as the Aquitaine basin in the southwest and the Paris basin in the north, the latter including several areas of particularly fertile ground such as the silt beds of Beauce and Brie. In the late 19th century, Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges, such as Garabit viaduct, and remains one of the most influential bridge designers of his time, although he is best remembered for the iconic Eiffel Tower. [250] Immigrants are major contributors to this trend; in 2010, 27 percent of newborns in metropolitan France had at least one foreign-born parent and 24 percent had at least one parent born outside of Europe (excluding French overseas territories).[251]. [4][5] At the same time, some Celtic tribes penetrated the eastern parts (Germania superior) of the current territory of France, but this occupation spread in the rest of France only between the 5th and 3rd century BC. A group of Assembly members who propagated war against Austria and Prussia was, after a remark by politician Maximilien Robespierre, henceforth designated the 'Girondins', although not all of them really came from the southern province of Gironde. In 1797, France conquered Rhineland, Belgium and much of Italy, and unsuccessfully attacked Wales. France was still localized, especially in terms of language, but now there was an emerging French nationalism that showed its national pride in the Army, and foreign affairs. [82], In October 1795, the Republic was reorganised, replacing the one-chamber parliament (the National Convention) by a bi-cameral system: the first chamber called the 'Council of 500' initiating the laws, the second the 'Council of Elders' reviewing and approving or not the passed laws. [186], Deep-rooted suspicions remained on both sides and were inflamed by the Dreyfus Affair. However, "banquets" were still legal and all through 1847, there was a nationwide campaign of republican banquets demanding more democracy. Places affected by this climate: Cauterets Courchevel, Alpe d'Huez, Les 2 Alpes, Peyragudes, Val-Thorens. Capetian authority was so weak in some remote places that bandits were the effective power. Summers are cold and wet, while winters are extremely cold, long and snowy. Long-established TV channels TF1 (privatized in 1987), France 2 and France 3 have the highest shares, while radio stations RTL, Europe 1 and state-owned France Inter are the least listened to. The Fourth Republic consisted of a parliamentary government controlled by a series of coalitions. [164], An election on 26 March 1871 in Paris produced a government based on the working class. Royalists and their allies still dreamed of restoring the monarchy to power, while the Prussian and Austrian crowns did not accept their territorial losses during the previous war. [47], In the North American theatre, France was allied with various Native American peoples during the Seven Years' War and, despite a temporary success at the battles of the Great Meadows and Monongahela, French forces were defeated at the disastrous Battle of the Plains of Abraham in Quebec. In August 1788, the King agreed to convene the Estates-General in May 1789. [citation needed], After two months the French army moved in to retake Paris, with pitched battles fought in working-class neighbourhoods. French peasants had been poor and locked into old traditions until railroads, republican schools, and universal (male) military conscription modernized rural France. [202] The most popular tourist sites include (annual visitors): Eiffel Tower (6.2 million), Château de Versailles (2.8 million), Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (2 million), Pont du Gard (1.5 million), Arc de Triomphe (1.2 million), Mont Saint-Michel (1 million), Sainte-Chapelle (683,000), Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg (549,000), Puy de Dôme (500,000), Musée Picasso (441,000), and Carcassonne (362,000). He set the context for the rise of power to much more powerful monarchs like Saint Louis and Philip the Fair. Including metropolitan France, the total amount of land under French sovereignty reached 11,500,000 km2 (4,400,000 sq mi) in 1920, with a population of 110 million people in 1939. The abbot was the son of a minor family of knights, but his political advice was extremely valuable to the king. At 4,810.45 metres (15,782 ft)[98] above sea level, Mont Blanc, located in the Alps on the French and Italian border, is the highest point in Western Europe. The Capetian kings treated other princes more as enemies and allies than as subordinates: their royal title was recognised yet frequently disrespected. There was a strong cultural evolution in Gaul under the Roman Empire, the most obvious one being the replacement of the Gaulish language by Vulgar Latin. The authority of the king was more religious than administrative. In the early 1990s, the country drew considerable criticism from other nations for its underground nuclear tests in French Polynesia. [190] In 2000, the stock exchanges of Paris, Amsterdam and Brussels merged into Euronext. France in February 1794 abolished slavery in its American colonies, but would reintroduce it later. The final victory in the Hundred Years' War marked an important stage in the evolution of French architecture. The architecture associated to this era is named Second Empire in English, the term being taken from the Second French Empire. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. French armies in 1796 advanced into Germany, Austria and Italy. The government in a law of 21 February 1795 set steps of return to freedom of religion and reconciliation with the since 1790 refractory Catholic priests, but any religious signs outside churches or private homes, such as crosses, clerical garb, bell ringing, remained prohibited. Chaplains were removed from naval and military hospitals (1903–04), and soldiers were ordered not to frequent Catholic clubs (1904). Last Updated: Dec 23, 2020 See Article History. The Age of Enlightenment was marked by the work of biologist Buffon and chemist Lavoisier, who discovered the role of oxygen in combustion, while Diderot and D'Alembert published the Encyclopédie, which aimed to give access to "useful knowledge" to the people, a knowledge that they can apply to their everyday life. [227], Appeasement of Germany, in cooperation with Britain, was the policy after 1936, as France sought peace even in the face of Hitler's escalating demands. They expanded educational opportunities and promoted consumers' and producers' cooperatives. The state was now struck for several weeks in July and August 1789 by violence against aristocracy, also called 'the Great Fear'. In 1801 Napoleon concluded a "Concordat" with Pope Pius VII that opened peaceful relations between church and state in France. It would end in 1763 with France losing New France to Great Britain. [54][55], The French Renaissance saw a spectacular cultural development and the first standardisation of the French language, which would become the official language of France and the language of Europe's aristocracy. If Philip II Augustus supported Philip of Swabia, member of the House of Hohenstaufen, then Richard Lionheart supported Otto IV, member of the House of Welf. [77] Crouzet, "French Economic Growth in the 19th century reconsidered", p. 172. Napoleon III was unseated following defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 and his regime was replaced by the Third Republic. These demonstrations reached a climax when on 15 May 1848, workers from the secret societies broke out in armed uprising against the anti-labor and anti-democratic policies being pursued by the Constituent Assembly and the Provisional Government. Under its terms, Louis XIV did not annex Franche-Comté but did gain Lille.[41]. It is currently estimated that 40% of the French population is descended at least partially from the different waves of immigration the country has received since the early 20th century;[265] between 1921 and 1935 alone, about 1.1 million net immigrants came to France. Gaul remained under Roman control for centuries and Celtic culture was then gradually replaced by Gallo-Roman culture. By the end of the 1620s, Richelieu established "the royal monopoly of force" as the doctrine. The first election under this new constitution – held in early 1876 – resulted in a republican victory, with 363 republicans elected as opposed to 180 monarchists. The convention's President Isnard, a Girondin, answered them: "Members of la Commune (…) If by your incessant rebellions something befalls to the representatives of the nation, I declare, in the name of France, that Paris will be totally obliterated". The new, 'corrected' government, still strongly convinced that Catholicism and royalism were equally dangerous to the Republic, started a fresh campaign to promote the Republican calendar officially introduced in 1792, with its ten-day week, and tried to hallow the tenth day, décadi, as substitute for the Christian Sunday. The France of today has evolved through 2500 years of history. Louis XIV, known as the "Sun King", reigned over France from 1643 until 1715 although his strongest period of personal rule did not begin until 1661 after the death of his Italian chief minister Cardinal Mazarin. France was one of the founding members of NATO (1949). No major cities are affected by this climate. However, Tokugawa was defeated during the Boshin War at the Battle of Toba–Fushimi by large Imperial armies. [68] But generally, the French opposition against 'Paris' had now evolved into a plain struggle for power over the country[71] against the 'Montagnards' around Robespierre and Marat now dominating Paris. Its army helped restore the Spanish monarch in 1823. Their main policies were governmental intervention (financed by a progressive income tax) to provide a social safety net. [68], On 2 June 1793, the convention's session in Tuileries Palace—since early May their venue—not for the first time degenerated into chaos and pandemonium. [264], The May 1958 seizure of power in Algiers by French army units and French settlers opposed to concessions in the face of Arab nationalist insurrection ripped apart the unstable Fourth Republic. When French imperial ambitions revived, Africa and Indochina would be the main targets, and commercial incentives, which had driven the creation of the pre-revolutionary empire, were secondary. Family allowances that had begun in the 1930s were continued, and became a vital lifeline for many families; it was a monthly cash bonus for having more children. Paul Beaudry and Franck Portier, "The French depression in the 1930s. [71], In the Convention session of 27 July 1794, Robespierre and his allies hardly managed to say a word as they were constantly interrupted by a row of critics such as Tallien, Billaud-Varenne, Vadier, Barère and acting president Thuriot. A global currency crisis meant a devaluation of the Franc against the West German Mark and the U.S. Dollar in 1968, which was one of the leading factors for the social upheaval of that year. [3] The cave paintings of Lascaux and Gargas (Gargas in the Hautes-Pyrénées) as well as the Carnac stones are remains of the local prehistoric activity. The status quo was recognised by an agreement between the two states acknowledging British control over Egypt, while France became the dominant power in Morocco, but France suffered a humiliating defeat overall. Around the beginning of the 11th century, Pope Sylvester II, born Gerbert d'Aurillac, reintroduced the abacus and armillary sphere, and introduced Arabic numerals and clocks to Northern and Western Europe. The Third Republic was dismantled, and most of the country was controlled directly by Germany while the south was controlled until 1942 by the collaborationist Vichy government. However, like many developed nations, France's population is aging; the average age is 42.6 years, while close to a fifth of French people are 65 or over. He made himself emperor as Napoleon III, but was overthrown when he was defeated and captured by Prussians in an 1870 war that humiliated France and made the new nation of Germany dominant in the continent. They opposed church schools. The proclamation of the French Empire was met by the Third Coalition. The Romans founded cities such as Lugdunum (Lyon), Narbonensis (Narbonne) and allow in a correspondence between Lucius Munatius Plancus and Cicero to formalize the existence of Cularo (Grenoble).[9]. His military architect, Vauban, became famous for his pentagonal fortresses, and Jean-Baptiste Colbert supported the royal spending as much as possible. Five directors then ruled France. Now promotion was by merit and achievement—every private carried a marshal's baton, it was said.[99]. Jean-Marie Mayeur and Madeleine Rebérioux, Marie-Monique Huss, "Pronatalism in the inter-war period in France. French became the most-used language in diplomacy, science, literature and international affairs, and remained so until the 20th century. [143], The 1850 elections resulted in a conservative body. On becoming king, Louis issued a constitution known as the Charter which preserved many of the liberties won during the French Revolution and provided for a parliament composed of an elected Chamber of Deputies and a Chamber of Peers that was nominated by the king. [377][378] The nation also hosts the Cannes Festival, one of the most important and famous film festivals in the world.[379][380]. The package was not very popular, but was pursued with vigor. Nevertheless, French King Henry II severely persecuted Protestants under the Edict of Chateaubriand (1551) and when the French authorities complained about the missionary activities, the city fathers of Geneva disclaimed official responsibility. ", Patrick J. Harrigan, "Church, State, and Education in France From the Falloux to the Ferry Laws: A Reassessment,", David H. Pinkney, "Money and Politics in the Rebuilding of Paris, 1860–1870,", Jack Ernest S. Hayward, "The official social philosophy of the French Third Republic: Léon Bourgeois and solidarism. A number of factors contributed to the rise of the French monarchy. Beyond membership in the European Union, France is also involved in many joint European projects such as Airbus, the Galileo positioning system and the Eurocorps. The Austrian army was defeated at the Battle of Marengo (1800) and again at the Battle of Hohenlinden (1800). In the 20th century, partly as a reaction to the perceived excesses of positivism, French spiritualism thrived with thinkers such as Henri Bergson and it influenced American pragmatism and Whitehead's version of process philosophy. [43], In 1701 the War of the Spanish Succession began. However, the couple disagreed over the burning of more than a thousand people in Vitry during the conflict against the Count of Champagne.[19]. [203], France, especially Paris, has some of the world's largest and most renowned museums, including the Louvre, which is the most visited art museum in the world (5.7 million), the Musée d'Orsay (2.1 million), mostly devoted to Impressionism, and Centre Georges Pompidou (1.2 million), dedicated to contemporary art. [440] Since 1900, France has hosted the Olympics on 4 further occasions: the 1924 Summer Olympics, again in Paris[438] and three Winter Games (1924 in Chamonix, 1968 in Grenoble and 1992 in Albertville). The Bourbons were restored, but left a weak record and one branch was overthrown in 1830 and the other branch in 1848 as Napoleon's nephew was elected president. He allied himself with the Duke of Aquitaine and son of Henry II—Richard Lionheart—and together they launched a decisive attack on Henry's castle and home of Chinon and removed him from power. Entire regions, especially around Paris, were left with few priests. They purchased and maintained the rolling stock—6,000 locomotives were in operation in 1880, which averaged 51,600 passengers a year or 21,200 tons of freight. During this period, crises like the threatened "Boulangist" coup d'état (1889) showed the fragility of the republic. The French Empire was defeated decisively at Metz and Sedan. France became the most populous country in Europe and had tremendous influence over European politics, economy, and culture. When the Legislative Assembly met at the beginning of October 1849, Passy proposed an income tax to help balance the finances of France. [30] France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptionally dense Carnac stones site (approximately 3,300 BC). "Church and state in France since the Revolution,", Harison, Casey. King Henry II died in 1559 in a jousting tournament; he was succeeded in turn by his three sons, each of which assumed the throne as minors or were weak, ineffectual rulers. However, "offences against public decency" (contraires aux bonnes mœurs) or disturbing public order (trouble à l'ordre public) have been used to repress public expressions of homosexuality or street prostitution. Summers are short, cool and wet, while winters are moderately cold and damp. The German Empire, as an ally of Austria, declared war on Russia. [citation needed] Analysis of arrests records indicate the typical communard was opposed to the military, the clerics, the rural aristocrats. On 22 November 1831 in Lyon (the second largest city in France) the silk workers revolted and took over the town hall in protest of recent salary reductions and working conditions. The 1872 census counted 36 million people, of whom 35.4 million were listed as Catholics, 600,000 as Protestants, 50,000 as Jews and 80,000 as freethinkers. [179] France also possesses in 2020 the fourth-largest gold reserves in the world. Francis Poulenc's best known works are his piano suite Trois mouvements perpétuels (1919), the ballet Les biches (1923), the Concert champêtre (1928) for harpsichord and orchestra, the opera Dialogues des Carmélites (1957), and the Gloria (1959) for soprano, choir and orchestra. Pinkney, David H. "Two Thousand Years of Paris,", Offen, Karen. Louis XIV also revoked the Edict of Nantes, forcing thousands of Huguenots into exile. "[210], The war was fought in large part on French soil, with 3.4 million French dead including civilians, and four times as many military casualties. While the Third Estate demanded and was granted "double representation" so as to balance the First and Second Estate, voting was to occur "by orders" – votes of the Third Estate were to be weighted – effectively canceling double representation. • The oceanic climate (Cfb) is found around the coasts of the Bay of Biscay, and a little bit inland. After a last brief reunification (884–887), the imperial title ceased to be held in the western realm, which was to form the basis of the future French kingdom. [42] The War of the Reunions broke out (1683–84), and again Spain, with its ally the Holy Roman Empire, was defeated. Because of the ambiguity surrounding Louis Napoleon's political positions, his agenda as president was very much in doubt. [43] Teutonic tribes invaded the region from present-day Germany, the Visigoths settling in the southwest, the Burgundians along the Rhine River Valley, and the Franks (from whom the French take their name) in the north.[44]. James McMillan, "Catholic Christianity in France from the Restoration to the separation of church and state, 1815–1905." Through the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (27 August 1789) France established fundamental rights for men. The only other countries having similar units are Spain (the Spanish Foreign Legion, called Tercio, was founded in 1920) and Luxembourg (foreigners can serve in the National Army provided they speak Luxembourgish). This provided a good basis for small-scale expensive luxury crafts that attracted an international upscale market. [141], In June 1849, demonstrations against the government broke out and were suppressed. This evolved into the Saintonge War (1242). [226], The government joined Britain in establishing an arms embargo during the Spanish Civil War (1936–39). [87] During the 1970s France faced economic crisis and allowed new immigrants (mostly from the Maghreb)[87] to permanently settle in France with their families and to acquire French citizenship. Among the notable figures of the war was Joan of Arc, a French peasant girl who led French forces against the English, establishing herself as a national heroine. Cities affected by this climate: Annecy, Besançon, Bourges, Chambéry, Clermont-Ferrand, Colmar, Dijon, Grenoble, Langres, Metz, Mulhouse, Nancy, Strasbourg. The Revolution in the 1790s abolished the traditional universities. "Frankish language") of the Crusader states. The French Republic is divided into 18 regions (located in Europe and overseas), five overseas collectivities, one overseas territory, one special collectivity – New Caledonia and one uninhabited island directly under the authority of the Minister of Overseas France – Clipperton. As of 2018[update], 69 French people have been awarded a Nobel Prize[239] and 12 have received the Fields Medal.[240]. [51] Under the rules of the Salic law the crown of France could not pass to a woman nor could the line of kingship pass through the female line. Following Napoleon's defeat in the Napoleonic Wars, France went through several further regime changes, being ruled as a monarchy, then briefly as a Second Republic, and then as a Second Empire, until a more lasting French Third Republic was established in 1870.